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Search Results 1 - 25 of 156. Results contain 924 matches


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Overview

Science, philosophy of

Science grew out of philosophy; and, even after recognizable, if flexible, interdisciplinary boundaries developed, the most fruitful philosophical investigations have often been made in close connection with science ...

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Biology, philosophy of

Biologists sometimes look perplexed when they are told of the existence of a subject called ‘The Philosophy of Biology’. What, they ask, is there to philosophise about in ...

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Physics, philosophy of

The philosophy of physics forms a central discipline of the philosophy of science, which itself can claim to be central to metaphysics and epistemology (see Science, philosophy of). ...

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Biographical

Bradwardine, Thomas (c.1300–49)

Thomas Bradwardine was a leading figure in fourteenth-century philosophy and theology from 1328, when he completed De proportionibus velocitatum in motibus (On the Ratios of Velocities in Motions), ...

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Thematic

Natural philosophy, medieval

Medieval Latin natural philosophy falls into two main periods, before the rise of the universities (mainly in the twelfth century, when works were produced in connection with aristocratic ...

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Oxford Calculators

‘Oxford Calculators’ is a modern label for a group of thinkers at Oxford in the mid-fourteenth century, whose approach to problems was noticed in the immediately succeeding centuries ...

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Biographical

Bonnet, Charles (1720–93)

In his youth, Bonnet made a meticulous and creative study of insects, which won him international fame for his discoveries, as well as his methods. He turned to ...

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Biographical

Cabanis, Pierre-Jean (1757–1808)

Cabanis believed in the possibility of a ‘science of man’, having its basis in medicine. He tried to show how a materialist conception of the human organism can ...

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Biographical

Descartes, René (1596–1650)

René Descartes, often called the father of modern philosophy, attempted to break with the philosophical traditions of his day and start philosophy anew. Rejecting the Aristotelian philosophy of ...

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Biographical

Ørsted, Hans Christian (1777–1851)

Hans Christian Ørsted, the Danish chemist and physicist, discovered electromagnetism in 1820. This epochal discovery fundamentally changed the development of physical science, leading to the ground-breaking research of ...

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Biographical

Mach, Ernst (1838–1916)

Mach was an Austrian physicist and philosopher. Though not one of the great philosophers, he was tremendously influential in the development of ‘scientific philosophy’ in the late nineteenth ...

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Biographical

Oken, Lorenz (1779–1851)

In the early nineteenth century, Oken was one of several German scientists who developed views about the metaphysical presuppositions of science, promoted by Kant and especially by Schelling ...

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Thematic

Naturphilosophie

Naturphilosophie refers to the philosophy of nature prevalent especially in German philosophy, science and literary movements from around 1790 to about 1830. It pleaded for an organic and ...

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Biographical

Boltzmann, Ludwig Eduard (1844–1906)

Boltzmann is famous in both physics and philosophy for interpreting thermodynamics in terms of molecular movement as if the second or ‘entropy’ law were merely statistically valid. This ...

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Biographical

Reichenbach, Hans (1891–1953)

Philosophy of science flourished in the twentieth century, partly as a result of extraordinary progress in the sciences themselves, but mainly because of the efforts of philosophers who ...

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Biographical

Du Bois-Reymond, Emil (1818–96)

Emil du Bois-Reymond conducted pioneering research in electrophysiology which established him as a major figure in German science in the second half of the nineteenth century. His influence ...

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Biographical

Haeckel, Ernst Heinrich (1834–1919)

Haeckel was the leading German Darwinist. His evolutionary philosophy of monism differed substantially from the views of Darwin or of British evolutionary philosophers such as Herbert Spencer or ...

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Thematic

Hellenistic medical epistemology

During the Hellenistic period (323–31 bc), there arose, largely in Alexandria, a profound debate in medical methodology. The main participants were the Empiricists, committed to an anti-theoretical, ...

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Atomism, ancient

Ancient Greek atomism, starting with Leucippus and Democritus in the fifth century bc, arose as a response to problems of the continuum raised by Eleatic philosophers. In ...

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Hippocratic medicine

The Hippocratic corpus is a disparate group of texts relating primarily to medical matters composed between c.450 and c.250 bc and dealing with physiology, therapy, ...

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Thematic

Archē

Archē, or ‘principle’, is an ancient Greek philosophical term. Building on earlier uses, Aristotle established it as a technical term with a number of related meanings, including ‘originating ...

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Thematic

Russian Darwinism

The Russian scientific community welcomed Darwin’s evolutionary theory and made it a basis of research in a wide range of biological sciences. Russian evolutionary studies in embryology, paleontology, ...

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Causation, Indian theories of

Causation was acknowledged as one of the central problems in Indian philosophy. The classical Indian philosophers’ concern with the problem basically arose from two sources: first, the cosmogonic ...

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Qi

A difficult term to contextualize within Western conceptual frameworks, qi is variously rendered as ‘hylozoistic vapours’, ‘psychophysical stuff’, ‘the activating fluids in the atmosphere and body’, and, ...

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