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Search Results 1 - 25 of 129. Results contain 654 matches


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Scottish philosophy

The place to begin is the article on Enlightenment, Scottish. It alerts you to the fact that there was rather more to Scottish philosophy in the eighteenth century ...

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Thematic

Logic in the 17th and 18th centuries

Logic in the seventeenth century was characterized by attempts to reconcile older viewpoints, such as those of Ramus and Melanchthon, and by criticism of the nature and scope ...

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Latin America, colonial thought in

Colonial refers to Spanish and Portuguese sovereignty in America from the arrival of Columbus in 1492 up to the emergence of modern Latin American states in the nineteenth ...

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Biographical

Amo, Anton Wilhelm (c.1703–56)

The first European-trained African philosopher, Amo pursued a scholarly career in jurisprudence and then in rationalist psychology, logic, and metaphysics. He trained at Halle, Wittenberg and Jena universities, ...

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Social science, history of philosophy of

The history of social science can conveniently be divided into four uneven periods, starting with the beginnings of both western science and philosophy in the ancient Greek ...

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Language, early modern philosophy of

Philosophical interest in language during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was strong but largely derivative. Most thinkers shared Leibniz’s view ‘that languages are the best mirror of the ...

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Biographical

Blackstone, William (1723–80)

Blackstone produced the first systematic exposition of English law as a body of principles. His enterprise was founded upon the assumption that the detailed rules of English law ...

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Biographical

Millar, John (1735–1801)

John Millar elevated law teaching from mere instruction in technicalities to the level of a genuinely liberal subject, largely by using his teaching to educate students in the ...

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Biographical

Pothier, Robert Joseph (1699–1772)

Robert Joseph Pothier was one of the most influential of modern civilian jurists. At the end of a long period of rationalistic natural law thought, he produced a ...

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Biographical

Motoori Norinaga (1730–1801)

Motoori Norinaga was a pivotal figure in Japan’s ‘Native Studies’ or ‘National Learning’ (kokugaku) movement. An accomplished philologist, he helped decipher the idiosyncratic eighth-century orthography of the Japanese ...

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Biographical

Tindal, Matthew (1657–1733)

Matthew Tindal was one of the last and most learned exponents of English deism. His most famous work is Christianity as Old as the Creation (1730), a comprehensive ...

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Thematic

Common-sense ethics

‘Common-sense ethics’ refers to the pre-theoretical moral judgments of ordinary people. Moral philosophers have taken different attitudes towards the pre-theoretical judgments of ordinary people. For some they are ...

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Biographical

Wollaston, William (1660–1724)

William Wollaston, a popular eighteenth-century English moral philosopher, is often grouped with Samuel Clarke as a staunch defender of the kind of moral rationalism that David Hume later ...

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Biographical

Wollstonecraft, Mary (1759–1797)

Wollstonecraft used the rationalist and egalitarian ideas of late eighteenth-century radical liberalism to attack the subjugation of women and to display its roots in the social construction of ...

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Biographical

Wollstonecraft, Mary (1759–1797)

Wollstonecraft was a republican thinker who produced influential texts on education, women’s rights, and the French revolution. Her writings were informed by Rousseau’s political and educational writings, and ...

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Thematic

Pietism

‘Pietism’ refers to a Protestant reform movement, arising in the late 1600s in Lutheran Germany, which turned away from contests over theological and dogmatic identity in Protestant confessionalism ...

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Moral sense theories

In Leviathan (1651), Thomas Hobbes argued that since good and evil are naturally relative to each individual’s private appetites, and man’s nature is predominantly selfish, then morality must ...

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Education, history of philosophy of

The philosophy of education may be considered a branch of practical philosophy, aimed ultimately at the guidance of an important aspect of human affairs. Its questions thus arise ...

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Biographical

Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim (1729–81)

Gotthold Ephraim Lessing occupies a central place in eighteenth-century European belles-lettres. He was a significant religious and theological thinker whose work puzzled his contemporaries and still provokes debate. ...

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Toland, John (1670–1722)

Deist, freethinker and political republican, the Irishman John Toland’s reputation is closely associated with the radical attack on Christian metaphysics and institutions in the Augustan period. His philosophical ...

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Baumgarten, Alexander Gottlieb (1714–62)

The German philosopher Baumgarten is known primarily for his introduction of the word ‘aesthetics’ to describe the affects of art and nature, which in the course of the ...

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Epistemology, history of

Epistemology has always been concerned with issues such as the nature, extent, sources and legitimacy of knowledge. Over the course of western philosophy, philosophers have concentrated sometimes on ...

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Biographical

Schiller, Johann Christoph Friedrich (1759–1805)

Schiller was an artist first – a major poet and the leading dramatist of eighteenth-century Germany – and an aesthetician second. At the height of his involvement in ...

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Biographical

Linnaeus, Carl von (1707–78)

Linnaeus was educated in Sweden, and became a doctor of medicine in Harderwijk, Holland, in 1735. He visited other European countries then, but he never left Sweden after ...

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