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Search Results 1 - 25 of 194. Results contain 913 matches


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Overview

Nineteenth-century philosophy

In the first part of the nineteenth century, the reigning philosophical outlook was idealist in one form or another, as the attempt was made to complete the intellectual ...

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Overview

Russian philosophy

Russian thought is best approached without fixed preconceptions about the nature and proper boundaries of philosophy. Conditions of extreme political oppression and economic backwardness are not conducive to ...

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Biographical

Alison, Archibald (1757–1839)

Archibald Alison was born in Edinburgh but was educated at Balliol and ordained in the Church of England. He returned to Edinburgh in 1800 as an Anglican clergyman ...

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Biographical

Bentham, Jeremy (1748–1832)

Jeremy Bentham held that all human and political action could be analysed in terms of pleasure and pain, and so made comprehensible. One such analysis is how people ...

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Biographical

Stewart, Dugald (1753–1828)

Dugald Stewart was, after Thomas Reid, the most influential figure in the Common Sense School; he was a major influence on Victor Cousin and Théodore Jouffroy in France ...

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Biographical

Alexander, Samuel (1859–1938)

Alexander propounded a metaphysical system based on a view of Space-Time differentiated into ‘motions’ from which new qualities emerged at certain levels of organization; matter, life and mind ...

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Biographical

Avenarius, Richard (1843–96)

Richard Avenarius, a German philosopher, is known as a proponent of ‘empiriocriticism’ and the principle of economy of thinking. Empiriocriticism is a modern version of empiricism which attempts ...

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Biographical

Bolzano, Bernard (1781–1848)

Bernard Bolzano was a lone forerunner both of analytical philosophy and phenomenology. Born in Prague in the year when Kant’s first Critique appeared, he became one of the ...

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Biographical

Boole, George (1815–64)

George Boole, a British mathematician, is credited with making a fundamental contribution to modern logic. If Leibniz’s manuscript essays on logic, effectively unknown until the end of the ...

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Biographical

Bosanquet, Bernard (1848–1923)

One of the most prominent and prolific of the British Idealists of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Bosanquet ranged across most fields of philosophy, making his ...

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Biographical

Boutroux, Émile (1845–1921)

The French philosopher Émile Boutroux wanted to reestablish metaphysics in the face of a growing tendency towards materialism, but without rejecting the natural sciences. He hoped to achieve ...

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Biographical

Bradley, Francis Herbert (1846–1924)

Bradley was the most famous and philosophically the most influential of the British Idealists, who had a marked impact on British philosophy in the later nineteenth and earlier ...

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Biographical

Brentano, Franz Clemens (1838–1917)

Brentano was a philosopher and psychologist who taught at the Universities of Würzburg and Vienna. He made significant contributions to almost every branch of philosophy, notably psychology and ...

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Biographical

Cattaneo, Carlo (1801–69)

The figurehead of the Italian democratic movement prior to the unification of Italy, Carlo Cattaneo developed a theory of federalism as a practice of self-government, envisaging a United ...

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Biographical

Maine de Biran, Pierre-François (1766–1824)

Maine de Biran claimed that the starting point for our understanding of human beings lay in introspective psychology: it was the awareness of willed effort. A proper understanding ...

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Biographical

Brown, Thomas (1778–1820)

Thomas Brown was the last prominent figure in the Scottish philosophical tradition deriving from David Hume and Thomas Reid. Like Reid, he took the mind’s knowledge about itself ...

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Thematic

Common Sense School

The term ‘Common Sense School’ refers to the works of Thomas Reid and to the tradition of Scottish realist philosophy for which Reid’s works were the main source. ...

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Thematic

Common Sense School

The school of common sense philosophy originated in the mid-1730s in Aberdeen in the circle of clergymen and academics associated with Thomas Reid. During the 1750s and 1760s ...

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Biographical

Fichte, Johann Gottlieb (1762–1814)

Fichte developed Kant’s Critical philosophy into a system of his own, which he named ‘Theory of Science’ or Wissenschaftslehre. Though Fichte continued to revise this system until ...

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Biographical

Heine, Heinrich (1797–1856)

Heinrich Heine was one of the most significant German literary and political figures during the period after the Napoleonic wars until the 1848 Revolution. He is associated with ...

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Biographical

Lewes, George Henry (1817–78)

Lewes was a philosophical historian and journalist, an exponent of the ideas of Auguste Comte, Goethe, Aristotle, Spinoza, Hegel and Kant, and author of the five-volume Problems of ...

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Biographical

Villari, Pasquale (1827–1917)

Pasquale Villari was the most famous Italian historian of the second half of the nineteenth century and the author of what is considered the first ‘manifesto’ of positivism ...

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Biographical

Tieck, Ludwig (1773–1853)

Ludwig Tieck was perhaps not the most historically influential figure of early German Romanticism, but he was one of its most important proponents; moreover, he was also among ...

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