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Search Results 1 - 25 of 346. Results contain 1,757 matches


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Overview

Phenomenological movement

The phenomenological movement is a century-old international movement in philosophy that has penetrated most of the cultural disciplines, especially psychiatry and sociology. It began in Germany with the ...

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Thematic

Kyoto School

The Kyoto school of philosophy pivots around three twentieth-century Japanese thinkers who held chairs of philosophy or religion at Kyoto University: Nishida Kitarō (1870–1945), Tanabe Hajime (1885–1962) and ...

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Thematic

Marxism, Chinese

Chinese Marxism is a mixture of elements from Confucianism, German Marxism, Soviet Leninism and China’s own guerrilla experience. Because Mao Zedong (1893–1976) was in power longer than any ...

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Biographical

Aurobindo Ghose (1872–1950)

Aurobindo Ghose was a leading Indian nationalist at the beginning of the twentieth century who became a yogin and spiritual leader as well as a prolific writer (in ...

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Biographical

Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand (1869–1948)

Gandhi was called Mahatma (the Great Soul) by Rabindranath Tagore and many in the West, while Gandhi’s followers often simply called him Bapuji (Father). His confrontation ...

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Biographical

Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli (1888–1975)

As a modern interpreter of Indian thought to Western scholars and a major influence on later Indian thinkers, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s teaching, writing and worldwide lecturing introduced the West ...

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Biographical

Leibowitz, Yeshayahu (1903–94)

Unlike the major intellectual currents that shaped religious thought in the modern world, Leibowitz’s thought is deeply anchored in the Israeli context. Both as philosopher and activist, Leibowitz ...

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Biographical

Soloveitchik, Joseph B. (1903–93)

Joseph B. Soloveitchik was a Jewish philosopher in the fullest sense. For such thinkers, the task of building intellectual and spiritual bridges between their particular traditions and other ...

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Biographical

Barth, Karl (1886–1968)

Karl Barth was the most prominent Protestant theologian of a generation shaken by the traumatic experience of the First World War and concerned with giving Christian theology a ...

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Biographical

Bonhoeffer, Dietrich (1906–45)

Dietrich Bonhoeffer was a twentieth-century Lutheran theologian who associated Christian belief and political action in an exemplary fashion. His part in the struggle of the Confessing Church and ...

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Biographical

Brunner, Emil (1889–1966)

Emil Brunner was one of the most influential Protestant theologians of the twentieth century. He was a minister of the Swiss Reformed Church, a professor at the University ...

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Biographical

Bultmann, Rudolf (1884–1976)

Rudolf Bultmann was one of the most influential Protestant theologians of the period that immediately followed the Second World War. A founding member of the school of dialectical ...

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Biographical

Buber, Martin (1878–1965)

Martin Buber covered a range of fields in his writings, from Jewish folklore and fiction, to biblical scholarship and translation, to philosophical anthropology and theology. Above all, however, ...

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Biographical

Kaplan, Mordecai (1881–1983)

Kaplan argued that Judaism was the evolving religious civilization of the Jewish people. He attempted to recast an inherited faith in rational and natural terms. His advocacy of ...

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Thematic

Jewish philosophy, contemporary

Jewish philosophy is pursued by committed Jews seeking to understand Judaism and the world in one another’s light. In this broad sense, contemporary Jewish philosophy maintains the central ...

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Biographical

Eliade, Mircea (1907–86)

Eliade was educated as a philosopher. He published extensively in the history of religions and acted as editor-in-chief of Macmillan’s Encyclopedia of Religion (1987). The influence of his ...

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Thematic

Holocaust, the

The specific, tragic event of the Holocaust – the mass murder of Jews by the Nazis during the Second World War – raises profound theological and philosophical problems, ...

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Biographical

Cohen, Hermann (1842–1918)

Hermann Cohen was the founder of the Marburg School of Neo-Kantianism and a major influence on twentieth-century Jewish thought. Die Religion der Vernunft aus den Quellen des Judentums ...

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Biographical

Ha’am, Ahad (1856–1927)

Ahad Ha’am (Asher Hirsch Ginzberg) was one of the most remarkable Jewish thinkers and Zionist ideologists of his time. Born in the province of Kiev in the Ukraine, ...

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Biographical

Rosenzweig, Franz (1886–1929)

An outstanding Hegel scholar – his Hegel und der Staat (Hegel and the State) (1920) remains a standard work on Hegel’s political philosophy – Franz Rosenzweig elaborated, in ...

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Biographical

Hessen, Sergei Iosifovich (1887–1950)

Sergei Hessen, a disciple of Rickert, has been described as ’the most brilliant and philosophically gifted’ representative of Neo-Kantian transcendentalism in Russia on the eve of the Revolution. ...

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Biographical

Iqbal, Muhammad (1877–1938)

Muhammad Iqbal was an outstanding poet-philosopher, perhaps the most influential Muslim thinker of the twentieth century. His philosophy, though eclectic and showing the influence of Muslims thinkers such ...

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Thematic

Islamic fundamentalism

The philosophical roots of Islamic fundamentalism are largely the result of a conscious attempt to revive and restate the theoretical relevance of Islam in the modern world. The ...

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Thematic

Islamic philosophy, modern

There are a number of major trends in modern Islamic philosophy. First, there is the challenge of the West to traditional Islamic philosophical and cultural principles and the ...

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Biographical

Niebuhr, Helmut Richard (1894–1962)

After early writings interpreting the social dimensions of US religious life from a Protestant point of view, Helmut Richard Niebuhr came increasingly to focus on theology, the interpretation ...

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