Ayer, A. J. (1936) Language, Truth and Logic, London: Gollancz, 2nd edn 1946, ch. 6.
(An early and simple statement of noncognitivism.)
Blackburn, S. (1993) Essays on Quasi-Realism, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(A collection of influential papers by a contemporary noncognitivist.)
Copp, D. (2001) ‘Realist-Expressivism: A Neglected Option for Moral Realism’, Social Philosophy and Policy
18 (2): 1–43.
(Proposes a hybrid theory of moral claims as containing both descriptive and expressive elements.)
Darwall, S., Gibbard, A. and Railton, P. (1997) Moral Discourse and Practice, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(An anthology of seminal works in metaethics, introduced with an influential survey of the field.)
Fantl, J. (2006) ‘Is Metaethics Morally Neutral?’, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly (1): 24–44.
(An article that challenges the sharp distinction between metaethics and normative theory.)
Finlay, S. (2007) ‘Four Faces of Moral Realism’, Philosophy Compass
2 (6): 820–849.
(A critical survey of some recent scholarship on moral realism.)
Fisher, A. and Kirchin, S. (2006) Arguing About Metaethics, New York: Routledge.
(A comprehensive anthology of contemporary writings in metaethics, arranged dialectically.)
Foot, P. (2001) Natural Goodness, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(A book-length statement of a naturalistic metaethical view in the Aristotelian tradition.)
Hare, R. M. (1952) The Language of Morals, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(A classic book-length presentation of a noncognitivist view.)
Harman, G. (1975) ‘Moral Relativism Defended’, Philosophical Review
(A classic defence of moral relativism.)
Harman, G. (1977) The Nature of Morality, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(A classic introductory text that presents some of the central problems of metaethics.)
Horgan, T. and Timmons, M. (2006) Metaethics after Moore, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(An anthology of new articles on a range of metaethical issues by leading writers.)
Mackie, J. L. (1977) Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong, Harmondsworth: Penguin Books
(An introductory text that poses some central metaethical puzzles, and the classic statement of error theory.)
Miller, A. (2003) An Introduction to Contemporary Metaethics, Cambridge: Polity Press.
(One of the few introductory textbooks on metaethics.)
Moore, G. E. (1903) Principia Ethica, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(The seminal work of twentieth-century metaethics and classic statement of nonnaturalist moral realism.)
Schroeder, M. (2010) Non-cognitivism in Ethics, London: Routledge.
(An accessible yet comprehensive introductory text on noncognitivism written for undergraduates, with exercises.)
Sidgwick, H. (1874) The Methods of Ethics, London: Macmillan
(A classic of moral philosophy that anticipates some of G. E. Moore’s central metaethical arguments.)
Smith, M. (1994) The Moral Problem, Malden, MA: Blackwell
(An influential monograph that provides a clear statement of a central problem of metaethics, and an ingenious moral realist solution.)