REP Online's General Editor is Tim Crane, Knightbridge Professor of Philosophy at the University of Cambridge, UK. The editorial board of Subject Editors, initially formed to publish the print version, remains at the heart of REP Online's new content programme. Since then we have been delighted to welcome many new outstanding Subject Editors to REP Online, who review the content and work with current and new contributors to deliver high quality new and revised articles.
Major new updates are also in progress for Seventeenth and Eighteenth-century philosophy (Rebecca Copenhaver, Lewis and Clark College, USA), Philosophy of mind and psychology (Tom Polger, University of Cincinnati, USA), Twentieth-century philosophy (Paul Livingston, University of New Mexico, USA), Political philosophy (Kok-Chor Tan, University of Pennsylvania, USA) and Epistemology (Duncan Pritchard, University of Edinburgh, UK).
Knightbridge Professor of Philosophy, University of Cambridge and Fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge, UK
Tim Crane was educated at the Universities of Durham, York and Cambridge. He was Professor of Philosophy at University College London, where he taught from 1990 to 2009. He founded the Institute of Philosophy at the University of London in 2005 and was its Director until 2008. He has been an academic visitor at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the Australian National University, the University of Sydney, Macquarie University, the University of Copenhagen and the Collegium Budapest Institute for Advanced Study. In 2008 he was Seybert Lecturer at the University of Pennsylvania. His publications include Elements of Mind (Oxford University Press, 2001), The Mechanical Mind (Second edition: Routledge, 2003), History of the Mind-Body Problem (Routledge, 2000; co-edited with Sarah Patterson) and Metaphysics: A Guide and Anthology (Oxford University Press, 2004, co-edited with Katalin Farkas).
Emeritus Professor of Philosophy, University of Cambridge, UK
Professor Edward Craig has held visiting appointments at the Universities of Bayreuth, Hamburg, Heidelberg and Melbourne, and a visiting Professorship at the Indian Institute of Advanced Studies. He works on the history of philosophy in the modern period and on the theory of knowledge. His main publications are David Hume: eine Einführung in seine Philosophie (Klostermann, 1979), The Mind of God and the Works of Man (Oxford University Press, 1987) and Knowledge and the State of Nature (Oxford University Press, 1990). He was elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 1993. Edward Craig was Knightbridge Professor at the University of Cambridge from 1998-2007. He was General Editor of the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Routledge, 1998) and then of the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy Online from its inception until 2011, when he became its Founding Editor.
Roger T. Ames
Chinese, Japanese and Korean philosophy
Professor of Philosophy and Director of the Center for Chinese Studies at the University of Hawaii, USA
Professor Ames is editor of Philosophy East and West. His recent publications include translations of Chinese classics: Sun-tzu: The Art of Warfare (Ballantine 1993), Sun Pin: The Art of Warfare (Ballantine, 1996) and Tracing Dao to its Source (1997) (both with D.C. Lau); and the Confucian Analects (with H. Rosemont) (1998). He has also written many interpretive studies of Chinese philosophy and culture: Thinking Through Confucius (SUNY Press, 1987), Anticipating China: Thinking through the Narratives of Chinese and Western Culture (SUNY Press, 1995) and Thinking from the Han: Self, Truth, and Transcendence in Chinese and Western Culture (SUNY Press, 1997) (all with D.L. Hall). He was the Director of the University of Hawaii’s Centre for Chinese Studies from 1991-2000 and was instrumental in creating the journal China Review International, which he edited until 2000.
Kwame Anthony Appiah
Laurance S. Rockefeller University Professor of Philosophy and the University Center for Human Values, Princeton University
Professor Appiah was raised in Ghana and educated at the University of Cambridge in England. He is the author of Assertion and Conditionals (Cambridge Univesity Press, 1985), For Truth in Semantics (Oxford: Blackwell’s, 1986), In My Father's House: Africa in the Philosophy of Culture (Oxford University Press, 1992) and Color Conscious: The Political Morality of Race (Princeton University Press, 1996) (with Amy Gutmann), Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers (W. W. Norton, 2006) and The Honor Code: How Moral Revolutions Happen (W. W. Norton, 2010). He was recently elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
E. J. Ashworth
Distinguished Professor Emerita, University of Waterloo, Canada
Professor Ashworth read history at Girton College, Cambridge before going to the USA where she received her Ph.D. in philosophy from Bryn Mawr College. She has taught in Canada since 1964. She is the author of many books and articles on medieval and Renaissance logic and philosophy of language; and she contributed to both the Cambridge History of Later Medieval Philosophy (Cambridge University Press, 1982) and the Cambridge History of Renaissance Philosophy.
Michael R. Ayers
Professor Emeritus of Philosophy, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
Professor Ayers was educated at St John's College, Cambridge. His many publications, both interpretive and critical, on the history of philosophy include Locke: Epistemology and Ontology (2 vols, Routledge 1991). He is co-editor of the Cambridge History of Seventeenth-Century Philosophy (Cambridge University Press, 1988).
Professor of Philosophy at the University of York, UK
Professor Baldwin has taught at the University of Cambridge, where he was a was a Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge, and at Makerere University in Uganda. His publications include G.E. Moore (Routledge, 1990), The Cambridge History of Philosophy 1870-1945 (Cambridge University Press, 2003) and Reading Merleau-Ponty (Routledge, 2007). He is also the author of numerous articles in metaphysics and the philosophy of language and is currently editor of Mind.
Beverley A. Brown
Philosophy of law
Lecturer at Birkbeck, University of London, and the University of Kent at Canterbury
Professor Brown was previously Professor of Legal Theory at the University of East London and has been a long term member of the Centre for Law and Society at the University of Edinburgh. She is a leading authority on feminism, gender studies and legal theory.
Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at University College London, UK
Professor Budd's was Grote Professor of Philosophy at UCL until 2001. His publications include Music and the Emotions (Routledge, 1985), Wittgenstein's Philosophy of Psychology (Routledge, 1989), Values of Art (Allen Lane, 1995) and Aesthetic Essays (OUP, 2008). He is a Fellow of the British Academy.
Philosophy of physics (from 2006)
Senior Research Fellow in philosophy of physics, Trinity College, Cambridge, UK.
Dr Butterfield has had appointments at Cambridge and Oxford Universities, and held visiting appointments at Princeton and Pittsburgh Universities. He has edited several books, and published numerous articles, mainly in the philosophy of physics.
Uehiro Fellow and Tutor in Philosophy, St Anne's College, University of Oxford, UK
Dr Crisp is author of Mill on Utilitarianism (Routledge, 1997), and edited the Oxford Philosophical Text of Utilitarianism (1998). He has edited two books on virtue ethics: How Should One Live? (Clarendon Press, 1996) and Oxford Readings on the Virtues (with Michael Slote) (Oxford University Press, 1997) His most recent book is Reasons and the Good (Clarendon Press) 2006. He has written articles in several areas of philosophy, including ethics and political theory and ancient philosophy, was editor– and is now associate editor - of Utilitas and is a member of the Analysis committee.
Philosophy of language
Associate Professor of Philosophy, Stanford University, USA
Professor Crimmins received his Ph.D. from Stanford in 1989, after which he taught at Cornell University and the University of Michigan. He has published a number of articles in philosophy of language and philosophy of mind, as well as the book Talk About Beliefs (MIT Press, 1992).
Philosophy of mathematics; Formal logic
Professor of Philosophy at the University of Notre Dame, USA
Professor Detlefsen has written extensively on Hilbert's Programme, Gödel's theorems, intuitionism, constructivist philosophies of mathematics and other topics in the philosophy of mathematics and logic. He has been the recipient of various faculty research awards, including fellowships from the Fulbright Foundation, the Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung and the National Endowment for the Humanities. He is co-editor-in-chief (with Peter Cholak) of the Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic and is on the editorial boards of Philosophica Mathematica and the Journal of Universal Computer Science.
Philosophy of science
Professor of Philosophy, University of Washington, Seattle, USA
Professor Fine has taught at the University of Illinois at Chicago, Cornell and Northwestern University. He is a past-president of the American Philosophical Association and of the Philosophy of Science Association and has for many years been on the editorial board of Philosophy of Science. His works include The Shaky Game: Einstein, Realism and the Quantum Theory (University of Chicago Press, 1986) and Bohmian Mechanics and Quantum Theory: An Appraisal (Kluwer, 1996).
Consultant Editor, CD-ROM
Research Fellow in Philosophy, Wolfson College and Lecturer in Philosophy, Jesus College, University of Oxford, UK
Luciano Floridi is the Consultant Editor of the REP on CD-ROM. He began working on the project in 1996. A Research Fellow and Lecturer in Philosophy at the University of Oxford, his publications include various articles on the epistemological aspects of information and communication technology. He is the author of Scepticism and the Foundation of Epistemology - A Study in the Metalogical Fallacies (Leiden: Brill, 1996) and edited P.O.Kristeller's Iter Italicum on CD-ROM (Leiden: Brill, 1995).
Professor of Philosophy, and Vice-Chancellor for Strategic Planning, New York University, USA
Professor Foley received his Ph.D. from Brown University. He served as NYU’s Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences until 2009, and was previously Chair of the philosophy departments at Rutgers University and Notre Dame University. He has published widely in epistemology, including two books: Working Without a Net: A Study of Egocentric Epistemology (Oxford University Press, 1993) and The Theory of Epistemic Rationality (Harvard University Press, 1987) and Intellectual Trust in Ourselves and Others (Cambridge University Press, 2001). He won American Philosophical Quarterly's Prize Essay in 1979 for his essay, ‘Justified Inconsistent Beliefs’.
Philosophy of logic
Professor of Philosophy, University of Colorado at Boulder, USA
Professor Forbes was educated at Glasgow University and Balliol and New College, Oxford. He has held teaching appointments at Merton College, Oxford, at the University of California at Santa Barbara and at Riverside, and for many years at Tulane University, New Orleans. His publications include The Metaphysics of Modality (Oxford University Press, 1985), Languages of Possibility (Blackwell, 1989), Modern Logic (Oxford University Press, 1994), Attitude Problems (Oxford University Press, 2006) and seventy articles in journals and edited collections.
Lenn E. Goodman
Professor of Philosophy at Vanderbilt University, USA
Professor Goodman specializes in metaphysics, ethics, Jewish and Islamic philosophy. His books include Creation and Evolution (Routledge, 2010), Tufayl’s Hayy Ibn Yaqzan (University of Chicago Press, 2009), God of Abraham (Oxford University Press, 1996), Avicenna (Routledge, 1992), On Justice (Yale University Press, 1991), Saadiah Gaon's Commentary on the Book of Job (Yale University Press, 1988) and Rambam (Viking, 1976).
Professor of Philosophy and Director of the Centre for Philosophy and Public Affairs at the University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK
Professor Haldane publishes widely on ethics, history of philosophy, philosophy of mind, and social philosophy. He also publishes in art, educational studies, and theology. Recent publications include Reasonable Faith (Routledge, 2010), Practical Philosophy (Imprint Academic, 2009), An Intelligent Person’s Guide to Religion (Duckworth, 2003) and Atheism and Theism with J.J.C. Smart (Blackwell, 1996).
Richard P. Hayes
Indian and Tibetan philosophy
Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, University of New Mexico, USA
Professor Hayes received his Ph.D. in Indian Buddhist philosophy from the department of Sanskrit and Indian Studies at the University of Toronto. His principal interests have been in Nagarjuna, Vasubandhu, Dignaga and Dharmakhirti. From 1988 to 2003 he taught Sanskrit language and Indian philosophy at McGill University; he now teaches Buddhist, Indian and Chinese philosophy at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque.
Philosophy of mind
Distinguished Professor of Philosophy, Australian National University, Australia, and Visiting Professor, Princeton University, USA
Professor Jackson has held a number of visiting appointments, including Leverhulme visiting professor at the University of Cambridge and John Locke Lecturer at the University of Oxford. He is the author of Perception (Cambridge, 1977), Conditionals (Blackwell, 1987), Mind, Method, and Conditionals (Routledge, 1998) and, with David Braddon-Mitchell, Philosophy of Mind and Cognition (Blackwell, 1996), and has published numerous articles in philosophy of mind, philosophical logic and ethics.
Aileen M. Kelly
Reader in Slavonic Studies, University of Cambridge and Fellow of King's College, Cambridge
Dr Kelly has published widely on Russian intellectual history. Her main publications include Mikhail Bakunin: A Study in the Psychology and Politics of Utopianism (Oxford University Press, 1982), Towards Another Shore: Russian Thinkers between Necessity and Chance (Yale University Press, 1998) and Views from the Other Shore: Essays on Herzen, Chekhov and Bakhtin (Yale University Press 1999).
Peter D. Klein
Professor of Philosophy, Rutgers University, USA
Professor Klein received his Ph.D. from Yale in 1966. He is best known for being one of the developers of the defeasibility theory of knowledge, beginning with ‘A Proposed Definition of Propositional Knowledge’ (Journal of Philosophy, 1971) to ‘Warrant, Proper Function, Reliabilism and Defeasibility’ in Warrant in Contemporary Epistemology (Rowman and Littlefield, 1996), and for his work on scepticism in Certainty (Minnesota Press, 1981) and ‘Skepticism and Closure: Why the Evil Genius Argument Fails’ (Philosophical Topics, 23.1, Spring 1995). His current research focuses on the infinitist theory of justification; recent publications include ‘How to be an Infinitist about Doxastic Justification (Philosophical Studies, 134.1, 2007) and ‘Infinitism’ in The Routledge Companion to Epistemology (Routledge 2011).
Matthew H Kramer
Philosophy of Law (from 2001)
Professor of Legal and Political Philosophy, University of Cambridge, UK
Professor Kramer is the Director of the Cambridge Forum for Legal and Political Philosophy, and a Fellow of Churchill College, Cambridge. He is the author of many books, of which the most recently published are Objectivity and the Rule of Law (Cambridge University Press, 2007) and Moral Realism as a Moral Doctrine (Blackwell, 2009).
Norman Kretzmann (deceased)
Susan Linn Sage Professor Emeritus of Philosophy, Sage School of Philosophy, Cornell University, USA
Professor Kretzmann wrote numerous books and articles in medieval philosophy including The Metaphysics of Theism: Aquinas's Natural Theology in Summa Contra Gentiles I (Clarendon Press, 1977). He was the Principal Editor of The Cambridge History of Later Medieval Philosophy (Cambridge University Press, 1982), and also edited Infinity and Continuity in Ancient and Medieval Thought (Cornell University Press, 1982), Meaning and Inference in Medieval Philosophy (Kluwer Academic Books, 1988) and The Cambridge Companion to Aquinas (Cambridge University Press, 1993) (with Eleonore Stump).
Islamic philosophy; Jewish philosophy
Professor of Philosophy and Zantker Professor of Judaic Studies, University of Kentucky, USA
Professor Leaman taught previously at the University of Khartoum, Sudan and Liverpool John Moores University. He is the author of An Introduction to Medieval Islamic Philosophy (Cambridge University Press, 1985), Evil and Suffering in Jewish Philosophy, (Cambridge University, 1995), Moses Maimonides (Curzon, 1997), Averroes and his Philosophy (Curzon, 1997) and Islamic Aesthetics: An Introduction (Edinburgh University Press, 2004). He is the editor of Friendship East and West (Curzon, 1996), The Future of Philosophy (Routledge, 1998), Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy (Routledge, 2001) and The Qur’an: An Encyclopedia (Routledge 2006) and co-editor of the Cambridge Companion to Medieval Jewish Philosophy (Cambridge University Press, 2003).
Robin Le Poidevin
Metaphysics (from 2003)
Professor of Metaphysics, University of Leeds, UK
Professor Le Poidevin has been Gifford Research Fellow at St Andrews and Senior Visitor at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, where he gave the 2007 Stanton Lectures. He is the author of Travels in Four Dimensions (Oxford University Press 2003) and The Images of Time: An Essay on Temporal Representation (Oxford University Press 2007) as well as numerous articles on metaphysics, epistemology and philosophy of religion.
Philosophy of biology (from 2006)
Reader in Philosophy of Science and Fellow of Clare College, University of Cambridge, UK
Dr Lewens teaches and researches in the department of History and Philosophy of Science at Cambridge University. He is the author of Organisms and Artifacts: Design in Nature and Elsewhere (MIT Press 2004) and Darwin (Routledge 2007) and the editor of Risk: Philosophical Perspectives (Routledge 2007). He has published articles on the philosophy of biology, philosophy of science, biomedical ethics and the philosophy of risk.
Neil MacCormick (deceased)
Philosophy of law
Regius Professor of Public Law and the Law of Nature and Nations at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
Professor MacCormick was President of International Association for Philosophy of Law and Social Philosophy. He was a Fellow of the British Academy and of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. His principal publications are Legal Reasoning and Legal Theory (Clarendon Press, 1978), H. L. A. Hart (1981), Legal Right and Social Democracy (Stanford University Press, 1982), An Institutional Theory of Law (with Ota Weinberger) (Kluwer, 1986), Interpreting Statutes (ed., with R.S. Summers) (Dartmouth, 1991) and Interpreting Precedents (ed., with R.S. Summers) (Dartmouth, 1997).
Postmodern French philosophy
Professor of Philosophy, Department of Germanic Languages, University of California at Los Angeles, USA
Professor McCumber received his Ph.D. in Philosophy and Greek from the University of Toronto and has taught at the University of Michigan-Dearborn, the Graduate Faculty of the New School for Social Research, the Collegium Phaenomenologicum and Northwestern University, where he was Koldyke Distinguished Teaching Professor from 1994-96. He currently teaches both philosophy and German. His publications include Poetic Interaction (University of Chicago Press, 1989), The Company of Words: Hegel, Language, and Systematic Philosophy (Northwestern University Press, 1993), Metaphysics and Oppression: Heidegger's Challenge to Western Philosophy (Indiana University Press, 1999); Time in the Ditch: American Philosophy and the McCarthy Era (Northwestern University Press, 2000); and Reshaping Reason: Toward a New Philosophy (Indiana University Press, 2005), as well as numerous articles on Hegel, Heidegger, and the history of philosophy.
Professor of Political Theory and Fellow of Nuffield College, University of Oxford
Professor Miller was educated at Cambridge and Oxford and taught at the Universities of Lancaster and East Anglia before taking up his present post. His publications in political philosophy include Social Justice (Clarendon Press, 1976), Philosophy and Ideology in Hume's Political Thought (Clarendon Press, 1981), Market, State, and Community (Clarendon Press, 1989), On Nationality (Clarendon Press, 1995), and National Responsibility and Social Justice (Oxford University Press, 2007). As editor, they include The Liberty Reader (Edinburgh University Press, 2006) and Michael Walzer: Thinking Politically (Yale University Press, 2007). He gave the 2008 Tanner Lectures on Human Values.
Amy A. Oliver
Latin American philosophy
Associate Professor of Spanish and Latin American Studies and Director of Women's and Gender Studies at American University in Washington, D.C., USA
Professor Oliver serves on the editorial boards of Cuadernos Americanos and the Social Philosophy Research Institute, and is a past president of the Society for Iberian and Latin American Thought (of the American Philosophical Association) and former chair of the Five College Council on Latin American Studies. She has written about Latin American intellectual history, especially Mexican and Brazilian culture and philosophy, and has recently conducted research in Argentina and Uruguay.
Professor of Philosophy, University of Cambridge, UK
Baroness O'Neill writes on ethics and political philosophy, with particular interests in questions of international justice, in the philosophy of Immanuel Kant and in bioethics. Her books include Faces of Hunger: An Essay on Poverty, Development and Justice (George Allen and Unwin, 1986), Constructions of Reason: Explorations of Kant's Practical Philosophy (Cambridge University Press, 1989), Toward Justice and Virtue (Cambridge University Press, 1996), Bounds of Justice (Cambridge University Press, 2000) and Autonomy and Trust in Bioethics (Cambridge University Press, 2002). She has been President of the British Academy and is Chair of the Nuffield Foundation.
Philosophy of mathematics (from 2007)
Reader in Philosophy of Mathematics and Fellow of Fitzwilliam College, University of Cambridge
Dr Potter has taught at Oxford, where he took a D.Phil. in pure mathematics and was a Fellow of Balliol College. His research interests lie mainly in the history of analytic philosophy (Wittgenstein, Russell and Frege), the philosophy of mathematics, and philosophical logic. He is the author of Reason’s Nearest Kin: Philosophies of Arithmetic from Kant to Carnap (Oxford University Press 2000), Set Theory and its Philosophy: An Introduction (Oxford University Press 2004) and Wittgenstein’s Notes on Logic (Oxford University Press 2009).
Duncan Pritchard Epistemology (from 2015)
Professor of Philosophy, University of Edinburgh, UK
Professor Pritchard works mainly in epistemology, and has published widely in this area. His books include Epistemic Luck (Oxford UP, 2005), The Nature and Value of Knowledge (co-authored, Oxford UP, 2010), Epistemological Disjunctivism (Oxford UP, 2012), and Epistemic Angst (Princeton UP, 2015). In 2011 he was elected to a Fellowship of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and in 2013 he delivered the annual Soochow Lectures in Philosophy in Taiwan.
Philosophy of religion (from 2010)
Professor of Philosophy and Director of the Center for Philosophy of Religion, University of Notre Dame, USA
Philosophy of psychology
Professor of Philosophy, University of Maryland at College Park, USA
Professor Rey received his Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1978. He has taught at SUNY Purchase, University of Colorado at Boulder and has been a visiting Professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is the author of Contemporary Philosophy of Mind: A Contentiously Classical Approach (Blackwell's, 1997) and numerous articles on the philosophy of mind.
Philosophy of social science
Professor of Philosophy, Birkbeck College, University of London and Director, New York University in London
Professor Ruben received his Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1971. He has lectured at the Universities of Edinburgh, Glasgow, Essex and the City University. His publications include Marxism and Materialism (1979), The Metaphysics of the Social World (Routledge, 1985), Explaining Explanation (Routledge, 1990) and Action and its Explanation (Oxford University Press, 2003). He has also edited a number of collections and published numerous articles in journals.
Metaethics (from 2010)
Associate Professor of Philosophy, University of Southern California, USA
Professor Schroeder's research focuses on metaethics and related areas, including normative ethics, epistemology, metaphysics, philosophy of language, and the history of ethics. He is the author of Slaves of the Passions (Oxford 2007), Being For: Evaluating the Semantic Program of Expressivism (Oxford 2008), and Noncognitivism in Ethics (Routledge 2010), as well as over 50 articles. His work on expressivism in metaethics has been recognized by Philosopher's Annual selections for 2008 and 2009, and by the 2010 APA Article Prize.
Laurence Professor of Ancient Philosophy, University of Cambridge and a Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge, UK
Professor Sedley has taught classics at Cambridge since 1975 and has held visiting Professorships at Princeton, Berkeley and Yale Universities. He has been editor of the Classical Quarterly (1986-1992) and of Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy (1998-2007). He is the author of The Hellenistic Philosophers (Cambridge University Press, 1987, jointly with A.A. Long), Lucretius and the Transformation of Greek Wisdom (Cambridge University Press, 1998), Plato’s Cratylus (Cambridge University Press, 2003), The Midwife of Platonism: Text and Subtext in Plato’s Theaetetus (Oxford University Press, 2004) and Creationism and its Critics in Antiquity (University of California Press, 2007), and of many articles on ancient philosophy. He has also worked extensively on the editing of philosophical papyri. He was elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 1994.
Professor, Department of Philosophy, University of Sheffield, UK
Professor Stern came to the University of Sheffield in 1989, having been a graduate and Research Fellow at St John's College, Cambridge. He is the author of Hegel, Kant and the Structure of the Object (Routledge, 1990), Transcendental Arguments and Scepticism (Oxford University Press, 2000), Hegel and the Phenomenology of Spirit (Routledge, 2002) and Hegelian Metaphysics (Oxford University Press, 2009). He is also President of the Hegel Society of Great Britain, and has published several papers relating to German and British Idealism.
Philosophy of religion
Robert J. Henle Professor of Philosophy, St. Louis University, USA
Professor Stump specializes in philosophy of religion, metaphysics and medieval philosophy. Her publications include Dialectic and its Place in the Development of Medieval Logic (Cornell University Press, 1989), Reasoned Faith (Cornell University Press, 1993), Aquinas (Routledge, 2003), Wandering in Darkness: Narrative and the Problem of Suffering (Oxford University Press, 2010) and the papers 'Eternity' (with Norman Kretzmann, Journal of Philosophy 78 (1981) 429-58), and Sanctification, Hardening of the Heart, and Frankfurt's Concept of Free Will' (Journal of Philosophy 85 (1988) 395-420). From 1995-1998 she was President of the Society of Christian Philosophers.
Political philosophy (from 2015)
Professor of Philosophy, University of Pennsylvania, USA
Professor Tan’s research focuses on various topics within political and social philosophy such as distributive justice, egalitarianism, nationalism, moral partiality and impartiality, and global justice. He is the author of Toleration, Diversity and Global Justice (2000); Justice Without Borders (2004); and Justice, Institutions and Luck (2012). Currently, he is completing a book, What Is This Thing Called Global Justice, for the Routledge What is this thing called? series.
Philosophy of science
Professor of Philosophy of Science at the London School of Economics, UK
Professor Worrall is a former editor of The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science. He is the author of numerous articles including 'Structural Realism: the Best of Both Worlds' in Philosophy of Science (D. Papineau, ed.) (Oxford University Press, 1996) and is currently completing a book on theory-change.
Phenomenology (from 2010)
Professor of Philosophy, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Professor Zahavi is the director of the Center for Subjectivity Research at the University of Copenhagen. He is the author of Husserl und die transzendentale Intersubjektivität (Kluwer, 1996), Self-awareness and Alterity (Northwestern University Press, 1999), Husserl's Phenomenology (Stanford University Press, 2003), Subjectivity and Selfhood (MIT Press, 2005) and, with Shaun Gallagher, The Phenomenological Mind (Routledge, 2008), and has published numerous articles in phenomenology and philosophy of mind.
Paul Edwards (deceased)
Professor of Philosophy (Emeritus), Brooklyn College, City University of New York, USA
General Editor of The Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Macmillan and the Free Press, 1967)
Distinguished Research Professor Emerita of Philosophy, York University, Ontario, Canada and Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada
Arthur Kingsley Porter Professor of Philosophy, Harvard University, USA
Professor of Philosophy and Director of the Center for Philosophy of Religion, University of Notre Dame, USA