Version: v1, Published online: 1998
Retrieved November 21, 2019, from https://www.rep.routledge.com/articles/biographical/cumberland-richard-1632-1718/v-1
Richard Cumberland developed his ideas in response to Hobbes’ Leviathan. He introduced concepts of aggregate goodness (later used in utilitarianism), of benevolence (used in moral-sense theory), of moral self-obligation, of empirical proofs of providence and of the moral importance of tradition à la Burke. The philosophical basis for Cumberland’s views was a theory of natural law which was strongly anti-voluntarist and committed to objective moral values, but recognizing institutions such as governments of state and church as conventional or traditional. Cumberland was often seen as the third co-founder, with Pufendorf and Grotius, of modern natural law.
Haakonssen, Knud. Cumberland, Richard (1632–1718), 1998, doi:10.4324/9780415249126-DA025-1. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Taylor and Francis, https://www.rep.routledge.com/articles/biographical/cumberland-richard-1632-1718/v-1.
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