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Kant, Immanuel (1724–1804)

DOI
10.4324/9780415249126-DB047-2
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2004
DOI: 10.4324/9780415249126-DB047-2
Version: v2,  Published online: 2004
Retrieved February 20, 2019, from https://www.rep.routledge.com/articles/biographical/kant-immanuel-1724-1804/v-2

List of works

Citations to Kant, with the exception of the Critique of Pure Reason, are standardly located by the appropriate volume and page number in Kant (1900-). This practice has been followed in this entry by giving the arabic volume number followed by the arabic page number. Citations to the Critique of Pure Reason are given with the pagination of the first (A) and/or second (B) editions, according to whether the passage occurred in one or both editions.

German editions

  • Kant, I. (1900–) Kant’s gesammelte Schriften (Kant’s Collected Works), ed. Royal Prussian (subsequently German, then Berlin-Brandenburg) Academy of Sciences, Berlin: Georg Reimer, subsequently Walter de Gruyter, 29 vols, in 34 parts.

    (28 volumes are published so far. The edition is divided into four parts: Werke (Works) (vols 1–9), Briefe (Letters) (vols 10–13), Handschriftlicher Nachlaß (Handwritten remains) (vols 14–23), and Vorlesungen (Transcriptions of lectures by other hands) (vols 24–29, no volume 26). This edition, referred to as the ‘Akademie’ edition, is the most complete collection of Kant’s works. While some of its texts of Kant’s published works have been superseded, it remains the only source for most of Kant’s unpublished notes and lectures.)

  • Kant, I. (1956–62) Immanuel Kant: Werke in sechs Bänden (Immanuel Kant: Works in Six Volumes), ed. W. Weischedel, Wiesbaden: Insel; repr. (in 12 vols but with original pagination) Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag, 1968.

    (A more modern edition of Kant’s published works only, also including German translations of Kant’s Latin works. Orthography is modernized, but the texts are more reliable than in the older Akademie edition.)

  • Kant, I. (1990) Kritik der reinen Vernunft (Critique of Pure Reason), ed. R. Schmidt, with bibliography by Heinrich Klemme, Hamburg: Felix Meiner, 3rd edn.

    (Published in the Philosophische Bibliothek series. This edition was the basis for N. Kemp Smith’s translation)

  • Kant, I. (1996) Kritik der reinen Vernunft Reclam (Critique of Pure Reason), ed. I. Heidemann, Stuttgart: Philipp Reclam Jun.

    (Published in the Universal-Bibliothek series. The best modern edition of the work)

  • Kant, I. (1998) Kritik der reinen Vernunft (Critique of Pure Reason), ed. J. Timmerman, Hamburg: Felix Meiner.

    (Replacement for Kant (1990), but presentation of divergences between Kant’s two original editions is not as perspicuous.)

    The individual editions of many of Kant’s other works in the Felix Meiner Philosophische Bibliothek have also been updated in the last two decades and are worth consulting.

English translations

The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant, edited by P. Guyer and A.W. Wood, will provide new or revised translations of all of the works Kant published in his lifetime and extensive selections from his letters, his surviving notes, drafts and fragments and surviving transcriptions of his lectures. As of 2002, the following volumes had appeared:

  • Kant, I. (1992) Theoretical Philosophy, 1755–1770, trans. and ed. D. Walford, in collaboration with Ralf Meerbote, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (Contains all of Kant’s writings up to 1770 except for scientific works and Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime. Important works contained in this volume include his first metaphysical treatise of 1755, the Only Possible Basis for a Demonstration of the Existence of God (1763), the Dreams of a Spirit-Seer (1766), and the inaugural dissertation of 1770.)

  • Kant, I. (1992) Lectures on Logic, trans. and ed. J.M. Young, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (Contains the authorized handbook edited by G.B. Jäsche in 1800, and three complete sets of lecture notes from the early 1770s, 1780s and 1790s.)

  • Kant, I. (1993) Opus postumum, ed. E. Förster, trans. E. Förster and M. Rosen, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (Contains extensive selections from the surviving manuscripts of Kant’s attempt to write a final book that would both restate the principles of his transcendental idealism and also complete the application of his fundamental principles to natural science.)

  • Kant, I. (1996) Practical Philosophy, ed. and trans. M.J. Gregor with introduction by A.W. Wood, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (Includes new translations of the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals and Critique of Pure Reason, a revised edition of Gregor’s previous translation of the Metaphysics of Morals, and Kant’s occasional essays on moral and political philosophy.)

  • Kant, I. (1996) Religion and Rational Theology, ed. and trans. G. Di Giovanni and A.W. Wood, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (Includes a new translation of Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason; the Conflict of the Faculties, which presents Kant’s main argument for the intellectual freedom of philosophers; and Kant’ lectures on philosophical theology.)

  • Kant, I. (1997) Lectures on Ethics, ed. P. Heath and J.B. Schneewind, trans. P. Heath, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (Contains complete sets of notes from 1775–84, 1784–5 and 1793–4.)

  • Kant, I. (1997) Lectures on Metaphysics, ed. and trans. K. Ameriks and S. Naragon, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (Contains complete lecture series from the mid-1770s, 1782–3, 1790–1 and 1794–5, as well as selections from other sets of notes as early as 1762–4. Kant’s views on both empirical and rational psychology are particularly well represented.)

  • Kant, I. (1998) Critique of Pure Reason, ed. and trans. P. Gruyer and A.W. Wood, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (In addition to an extensive introduction and cross-references to many relevant notes among Kant’s literary remains, this is the first edition of the Critique to include all of Kant’s notes in his own copy of the first edition of 1781.)

  • Kant, I. (1999) Correspondence, ed. and trans. A. Zweig, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (A much expanded and revised replacement of Zweig’s earlier edition of 1967.)

  • Kant, I. (2000) Critique of the Power of Judgment, ed. P. Guyer, trans. P. Guyer and E. Matthews, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (Contains both versions of the introduction, and extensive references to Kant’s notes on aesthetics and lectures on anthropology.)

  • Kant, I. (2002) Theoretical Philosophy after 1781, ed. H.E. Allison and P. Heath, trans. H.E. Allison, M. Friedman, G. Hatfield and P. Heath, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (Contains new translations of the Prolegomena and Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science as well as Kant’s polemical writings from the 1790s.)

    The remaining volumes to appear in the Cambridge edition are: Anthropology, History, and Education; Natural Science; Lectures on Anthropology; and Notes and Fragments.

Individual works

  • Kant, I. (1911) Critique of Aesthetic Judgement, trans., with analytical indexes, J.C. Meredith, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

  • Kant, I. (1928) Critique of Teleological Judgement, trans., with analytical indexes, J.C. Meredith, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

  • Kant, I. (1997) Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics, with selections from the Critique of Pure Reason, ed. and trans. G. Hatfield, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (A reliable revision of the Paul Carus translation of 1902.)

  • Kant, I. (1952) Kant’s Critique of Judgement, trans. J.C. Meredith, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

    (Reprint of Kant (1911) and (1928), without indices.)

  • Kant, I. (1960) Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime, trans. J.T. Goldthwait, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.

  • Kant, I. (1967) Kant: Philosophical Correspondence 1759–99, trans. A. Zweig, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

    (A selection of the most philosophically interesting letters with useful annotations.)

  • Kant, I. (1968) Selected Pre-Critical Writings and Correspondence with Beck, trans. G.B. Kerferd and D.E. Walford, with a contribution by P.G. Lucas, Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press and Barnes & Noble.

    (Includes Kant’s correspondence with Marcus Herz in the 1770s and J.S. Beck in the 1790s, not included in Kant’s Theoretical Philosophy, 1755–1770.)

  • Kant, I. (1969) Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens, trans. W. Hastie, with new introduction by M.K. Munitz, Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

    (Antiquated translation.)

  • Kant, I. (1970) Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science, trans. J. Ellington, Indianapolis and New York: Bobbs-Merrill; repr., with Prolegomena, in Philosophy of Material Nature, Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 1985.

    (The only translation currently available.)

  • Kant, I. (1973) The Kant-Eberhard Controversy: An English translation together with supplementary materials and a historical-analytical introduction of Immanuel Kant’s On a New Discovery According to which Any New Critique of Pure Reason Has Been Made Superfluous by an Earlier One, trans. H.E. Allison, Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

    (Kant’s polemical defence of the idea of the synthetic a priori from the Wolffians, with valuable supplementary material.)

  • Kant, I. (1974) Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View, trans. M.J. Gregor, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.

    (Handbook to Kant’s lectures on anthropology, focusing especially on cognitive and moral psychology.)

  • Kant, I. (1983) What Real Progress Has Metaphysics Made in Germany since the Time of Leibniz and Wolff?, trans. T. Humphrey, New York: Abaris Books.

    (Only separate English translation of this unfinished competition entry, posthumously published by Rink in 1804. A new English translation is included in Theoretical Philosophy after 1781.)

  • Kant, I. (1986) Kant’s Latin Writings: Translations, Commentaries, and Notes, trans. L.W. Beck, M.J. Gregor, R. Meerbote and J.A. Reuscher, New York, Bern, Frankfurt and Paris: Peter Lang.

    (Includes some fragments not included in Kant’s Theoretical Philosophy, 1755–1770.)

  • Kant, I. (1991) The Metaphysics of Morals, trans. M.J. Gregor, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (The first single-volume translation of both the Rechtslehre and Tugendlehre, supersedes all earlier separate translations.)

  • Kant, I. (1991) Kant’s Political Writings, ed. H. Reiss, trans. H.B. Nisbet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2nd edn.

    (Includes most of what is in Kant on history as well as ‘Theory and Practice’ and ‘Public Right’ from the Rechtslehre.)

References and further reading

Biography

  • Kuehn, M. (2001) Kant: A Biography, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (An insightful account of Kant’s intellectual development that situates his thought in both the immediate German context and the larger trends of his time.)

Multi-author anthologies and general background

  • Beck, L.W. (1965) Studies in the Philosophy of Kant, Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill Company.

    (Contains Beck’s essays on analytic-synthetic distinction and on political philosophy.)

  • Beck, L.W. (1969) Early German Philosophy: Kant and his Predecessors, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    (Detailed history of German philosophy from the middle ages to Kant, the only work of its kind.)

  • Beck, L.W. (1978) Essays on Kant and Hume, New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

    (Contains noteworthy essays on causation.)

  • Beiser, F.C. (1987) The Fate of Reason: German Philosophy from Kant to Fichte, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    (A detailed study of the reception of Kant; contains extensive bibliography of primary sources.)

  • Caygill, H. (1995) A Kant Dictionary, Oxford: Blackwell.

    (Short but informative essays on many of Kant’s key conepts and terms.)

  • Chadwick, R. (1992) Immanuel Kant: Critical Assessments, London: Routledge, 4 vols.

    (One volume of classical critiques from Friedrich Schiller to Strawson and Bennett, followed by three volumes of recent articles.)

  • De Vleeschauwer, H.J. (1934–7) La Déduction Transcendentale dans l’œvre de Kant (The Transcendental Deduction in the Work of Kant), Antwerp, Paris, and the Hague: De Sikkel, Champion, and Martinus Nijhoff, 3 vols.

    (More general than its title suggests, it is still the most detailed study of Kant’s philosophical development available.)

  • De Vleeschauwer, H.J. (1962) The Development of Kantian Thought: The History of a Doctrine, trans. A.R.C. Duncan, London: Thomas Nelson.

    (An abridgement of De Vleeschauwer (1934–7).)

  • Förster, E. (1989) Kant’s Transcendental Deductions: The Three ‘Critiques’ and the ‘Opus postumum’, Stanford: Stanford University Press.

    (Includes noteworthy essays by Dieter Henrich and John Rawls.)

  • Guyer, P. (1992) The Cambridge Companion to Kant, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (Specially written chapters surveying the whole of Kant’s philosophy and an extensive bibliography.)

  • Guyer, P. (1998) Kant’s Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: Critical Essays, Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

    (Includes essays by the leading writers on the Groundwork from the last two decades, and an extensive bibliography.)

  • Henrich, D. (1994) The Unity of Reason: Essays on Kant’s Philosophy, ed. R. Velkley, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    (Translations of Henrich’s important monograph on the transcendental deduction from 1976 and several of his essays on Kant’s ethics.)

  • Höffe, O. (1994) Immanuel Kant, trans. M. Farrier, Albany: State University of New York Press.

    (The best recent German survey of Kant’s philosophy.)

  • Klemme, H.F. and Kuehn, M (1999) Immanuel Kant, Ashgate: Dartmouth, 2 cols.

    (Fifty of the most important journal articles on Kant’s theoretical philosophy, moral philosophy, political philosophy and philosophy of religion, from 1939 to 1996.)

  • Timmons, M. (2002) Kant’s Metaphysics of Morals: Interpretative Essays, Oxford: Oxford university Press.

    (Seventeen studies of Kant’s most detailed work on moral and political philosophy by leading authorities.)

  • Walker, R.C.S. (1978) Kant, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

    (A well-informed, argumentative overview.)

  • Watkins, E. (2001) Kant and the Sciences, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    (Twelve essays on the scientific context of Kant’s work and on his views in physics, psychology, chemistry and biology.)

  • Wolff, R.P. (1967) Kant: A Collection of Critical Essays, Garden City: Doubleday Anchor.

    (Includes Lewis White Beck’s papers on the analytic-synthetic distinction.)

Individual topics

  • Allison, H.E. (1983) Kant’s Transcendental Idealism, New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

    (Influential presentation of the ‘two-aspect’ theory, includes extensive bibliography.)

  • Allison, H.E. (1990) Kant’s Theory of Freedom, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (Controversial defence of a theoretical proof of freedom.)

  • Allison, H.E. (1996) Idealism and Freedom: Essays on Kant’s Theoretical and Practical Philosophy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (Essays extending and defending the controversial views on transcendental idealism and its role in Kant’s ethics advanced in Allison (1983) and (1990).)

  • Allison, H.E. (2001) Kant’s Theory of Taste: A Reading of the Critique of Aesthetic Judgment, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (An interpretation of Kant’s theory of aesthetic judgment and its connection to morality, not heavily dependent upon Allison’s interpretation of transcendental idealism.)

  • Ameriks, K. (1982) Kant’s Theory of Mind: An Analysis of the Paralogisms of Pure Reason, Oxford: Clarendon Press. rev edn, 2000

    (Using Kant’s lectures on metaphysics, argues that Kant’s departure from traditional rational psychology is not as radical as is usually assumed.)

  • Aune, B. (1979) Kant’s Theory of Morals, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

    (A careful analytical study.)

  • Beck, L.W. (1960) A Commentary on Kant’s Critique of Practical Reason, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

    (Only detailed commentary on the second Critique, defends a perspectival approach to freedom.)

  • Beiser, F.C. (1992) Enlightenment, Revolution and Romanticism: The Genesis of Modern German Political Thought, 1790–1800, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    (Places Kant’s political thought in detailed historical context.)

  • Bennett, J. (1966) Kant’s Analytic, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (Together with Bennett (1974) constitutes one of the most influential analytical studies of Kant; the 1966 work remains more successful.)

  • Bennett, J. (1974) Kant’s Dialectic, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (Together with Bennett (1966) constitutes one of the most influential analytical studies of Kant; the 1966 work remains more successful.)

  • Brittan, G.G., Jr. (1978) Kant’s Theory of Science, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

    (A contemporary assessment of Kant’s philosophy of mathematics and physics.)

  • Brook, A. (1994) Kant and the Mind, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (A study of Kant’s philosophy of mind aimed at contemporary philosophers.)

  • Buchdahl, G. (1992) Kant and the Dynamics of Reason: Essays on the Structure of Kant’s Philosophy, Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

    (Contains many of Kant’s influential papers, especially on ‘regulative principles’.)

  • Butts, R.E. (1986) Kant’s Philosophy of Physical Science: Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft 1786–1986, Dordrecht: Reidel.

    (Contains important papers by G. Brittan, G. Buchdahl, M. Friedman and P. Kitcher, among others).

  • Cohen, T. and Guyer P. (1982) Essays in Kant’s Aesthetics, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

    (Includes important papers by R. Aquila, D. Crawford and D. Henrich as well as the editors; includes extensive bibliography.)

  • Crawford, D.W. (1974) Kant’s Aesthetic Theory, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

    (The first important analytical study of Kant’s aesthetics, it argues for a moral completion of the deduction of taste.)

  • Crowther, P. (1989) The Kantian Sublime: From Morality to Art, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

    (Tries to broaden the Kantian theory of the sublime beyond morality.)

  • Dryer, D.P. (1966) Kant’s Solution for Verification in Metaphysics, London: George Allen & Unwin.

    (Overshadowed by Strawson (1966) and Bennett (1966), remains a wordy but valuable study of Kant’s theory of the synthetic a priori.)

  • England, F.E. (1930) Kant’s Conception of God: A Critical Exposition of its Metaphysical Development together with a Translation of the Nova Delucidatio, New York: Dial Press.

    (An account of Kant’s early as well as mature treatment of God.)

  • Ewing, A.C. (1924) Kant’s Treatment of Causality, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

    (Old but still insightful.)

  • Förster, E. (2000) Kant’s Final Synthesis: An Essay on the Opus postumum , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    (A lucid guide through some of the main themes of Kant’s obscure and incomplete final work.)

  • Friedman, M. (1992) Kant and the Exact Sciences, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    (Influential papers on Kant’s philosophy of geometry and physics, and a detailed study of the Opus postumum.)

  • Galston, W.A. (1975) Kant and the Problem of History, Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.

    (A wide-ranging survey focusing on history and political progress.)

  • Gardner, S. (1999) Kant and the Critique of Pure Reason , London: Routledge.

    (An introductory work, often helpful, although heavily committed to the defence of transcendental idealism.)

  • Gregor, M. (1963) Laws of Freedom: A Study of Kant’s Method of Applying the Categorical Imperative in the Metaphysik der Sitten, Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

    (The standard English commentary on the Metaphysics of Morals.)

  • Grier, M. (2001) Kant’s Doctrine of Transcendental Illusion, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (A helpful study of the ‘Transcendental Dialectic’.)

  • Guyer, P. (1979) Kant and the Claims of Taste, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 2nd edn, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

    (A critical scrutiny of Kant’s analysis and deduction of judgments of taste, now amplified with a chapter on Kant’s conception of art.)

  • Guyer, P. (1987) Kant and the Claims of Knowledge, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (After a study of Kant’s development in the 1770s, separates Kant’s theory of categories from transcendental idealism.)

  • Guyer, P. (1993) Kant and the Experience of Freedom: Essays on Aesthetics and Morality, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (A collection of essays placing Kant’s aesthetics in its historical context and exploring connections with Kant’s moral philosophy.)

  • Guyer, P. (2000) Kant on Freedom, Law, and Happiness, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (Essays on the development of Kant’s moral philosophy and on its foundations, applications in political philosophy and ethics, and philosophy of history.)

  • Hanna, R. (2001) Kant and the Foundations of Analytical Philosophy, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

    (A detailed defence of Kant’s treatment of both analytic and synthetic judgments.)

  • Herman, B. (1992) The Practice of Moral Judgment, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    (A vigorous defence of a non-formalistic approach to Kant’s ethics.)

  • Hill, T.E., Jr. (1992) Dignity and Practical Reason in Kant’s Moral Theory, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

    (Important papers, primarily on Kant’s normative ethics.)

  • Hill, T.E., Jr. (2000) Respect, Pluralism and Justice: Kantian Perspectives, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    (Further studies of both the foundations of Kant’s ethics and his political and legal philosophy.)

  • Howell, R. (1992) Kant’s Transcendental Deduction: An Analysis of Main Themes in his Critical Philosophy, Dordrecht and Boston: Kluwer.

    (A detailed study influenced by Hintikka’s philosophy of language.)

  • Kemp Smith, N. (1923) A Commentary to Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason, London: Macmillan, 2nd edn.

    (The classical English presentation of the ‘patchwork theory’ of the composition of the first Critique, it remains stimulating and the only important English commentary on every part of the Critique.)

  • Kersting, W. (1993) Wohlgeordnete Freiheit: Immanuel Kants Rechts- und Staatsphilosophie, Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 2nd edn.

    (The most important German study of Kant’s political philosophy, it argues for tension between liberal and conservative elements; 2nd edition adds introduction on Kant’s contemporary impact and includes extensive bibliography.)

  • Kersting, W. (1993) Wohlgeordnete Freiheit: Immanuel Kants Rechts- und Staatsphilosophie (Well-ordered Freedom: Immanuel Kant’s Philosophy of Law and of the State), Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 2nd edn.

    (The most important German study of Kant’s political philosophy, it argues for tension between liberal and conservative elements; the 2nd edn adds an introduction on Kant’s contemporary impact and includes an extensive bibliography.)

  • Kitcher, P. (1990) Kant’s Transcendental Psychology, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    (A defence of Kant’s cognitive psychology.)

  • Korsgaard, C.M. (1996) Creating the Kingdom of Ends, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (Includes all of the author’s important papers on Kant’s ethics, originally published between 1983 and 1993.)

  • Langton, R. (1988) Kantian Humility, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

    (A forceful defence of the view that Kant’s distinction between phenomena and things-in-themselves is best understood as that between relational and non-relational properties.)

  • Linden, van der, H. (1988) Kantian Ethics and Socialism, Indianapolis, IN, and Cambridge, MA: Hackett.

    (Finds grounds for socialism in Kant.)

  • Longuenesse, B. (1998) Kant and the Capacity to Judge: Sensibility and Discursivity in the Transcendental Analytic of the Critique of Pure Reason , Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    (A detailed study of Kant’s conception of judgment and concept-formation.)

  • Louden, R.B. (2000) Kant’s Impure Ethics: From Rational Beings to Human Beings, New York: Oxford University Press.

    (A study of Kant’s moral anthropology.)

  • Makkreel, R. (1990) Imagination and Interpretation in Kant, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

    (A hermeneutic approach.)

  • Longuenesse, B. (1998) Kant and the Capacity to Judge: Sensibility and Discursivity in the Transcendental Analytic of the Critique of Pure Reason , trans. C.T. Wolfe, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

  • McFarland, J.D. (1970) Kant’s Concept of Teleology, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

    (A useful general survey in English.)

  • McLaughlin, P. (1990) Kant’s Critique of Teleology in Biological Explanation, Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press.

    (Focuses on Kant’s theory of organisms.)

  • Melnick, A. (1973) Kant’s Analogies of Experience, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

    (Indispensable interpretation of the Analogies.)

  • Melnick, A. (1989) Space, Time, and Thought in Kant, Dordrecht: Kluwer.

    (Immensely complicated reconstruction of the genesis and content of Kant’s theory of empirical judgment.)

  • Mulholland, L.A. (1990) Kant’s System of Rights, New York: Columbia University Press.

    (An interesting successor to Gregor’s commentary on the Metaphysics of Morals.)

  • Nell, O. (O’Neill) (1975) Acting on Principle: An Essay on Kantian Ethics, New York: Columbia University Press.

    (The most important interpretation of the categorical imperative.)

  • O’Neill, O. (1989) Constructions of Reason: Explorations of Kant’s Practical Philosophy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (Papers on both the interpretation and application of Kantian ethics.)

  • Paton, H.J. (1936) Kant’s Metaphysics of Experience: A Commentary on the First Half of the Kritik der reinen Vernunft, London: George Allen & Unwin, 2 vols.

    (Extensive rebuttal of Kemp Smith’s ‘patchwork theory’; like the contemporary work by De Vleeschauwer, makes much use of Kant’s notes.)

  • Paton, H.J. (1947) The Categorical Imperative: A Study in Kant’s Moral Philosophy, London: Hutchinson.

    (The classical English commentary on the Groundwork.)

  • Prauss, G. (1974) Kant und das Problem der Dinge an sich (Kant and the Problem of the Ding an sich ), Bonn: Bouvier.

    (An influential presentation of the ‘two-aspect’ interpretation of the distinction between appearances and things in themselves.)

  • Reich, K. (1992) The Completeness of Kant’s Table of Judgments, trans. J. Kneller and M. Losoncy, Stanford: Stanford University Press.

    (Influential defense of the metaphysical deduction.)

  • Riley, P. (1983) Kant’s Political Philosophy, Totowa: Rowman and Littlefield.

    (Examines tensions between Kant’s liberalism and his teleology.)

  • Rosen, A.D. (1993) Kant’s Theory of Justice, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

    (Defends Kant’s position on revolution.)

  • Sassen, B. (2000) Kant’s Early Critics: The Empiricist Critique of the Theoretical Philosophy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (Translations of the notorious first review of the Critique of Pure Reason and of many other responses to Kant in the 1780s, including F.H. Jacobi’s influential critique of Kant’s concept of the thing in itself.)

  • Savile, A. (1987) Aesthetic Reconstructions: The Seminal Writings of Lessing, Kant, and Schiller, Aristotelian Society Series 8, Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

    (A useful comparative study.)

  • Savile, A. (1993) Kantian Aesthetics Pursued, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

    (A variety of studies, including applications of Kantian theory to music and architecture.)

  • Schönfeld, M. (2000) The Philosophy of the Young Kant: The Precritical Project, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    (A detailed but accessible study of Kant’s philosophical development from 1746 to 1766.)

  • Sherman, N. (1997) Making a Necessity of Virtue: Aristotle and Kant on Virtue, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (Argues for the role of emotions in Kant’s ethics.)

  • Strawson, P.F. (1966) The Bounds of Sense: An Essay on Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason, London: Methuen.

    (An elegant reconstruction, based on Strawson’s theory of meaning, that stimulated much of the best work on Kant in the 1960s and 1970s.)

  • Vaihinger, H. (1881–92) Commentar zu Kants Kritik der reinen Vernunft (Commentary on Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason ), Stuttgart: W. Spemann and Union Deutsche Verlagsgesellschaft, 2 vols.

    (The most detailed study of the Introduction and Transcendental Aesthetic ever produced.)

  • Van Cleve, J. (1999) Problems from Kant, New York: Oxford University Press.

    (A lucid analytical study of topics in the first Critique, focusing on space and time, objectivity, the concepts of substance and causation, and transcendental idealism.)

  • Ward, K. (1972) The Development of Kant’s View of Ethics, Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

    (The only modern study of this topic in English.)

  • Williams, H. (1983) Kant’s Political Philosophy, New York: St. Martin’s.

    (A general survey.)

  • Williams, H. (1992) Essays on Kant’s Political Philosophy, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

    (Contains essays by O. Höffe, W. Kersting and O. O’Neill among others.)

  • Wolff, R.P. (1963) Kant’s Theory of Mental Activity: A Commentary on the Transcendental Analytic of the Critique of Pure Reason, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    (Valuable commentary on the first-edition deduction and the second Analogy.)

  • Wood, A.W. (1970) Kant’s Moral Religion, Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.

    (A valuable study of Kant’s moral theology.)

  • Wood, A.W. (1978) Kant’s Rational Theology, Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.

    (A study of Kant’s critique of the traditional arguments for the existence of God, drawing heavily on Kant’s lectures.)

  • Wood, A.W. (1999) Kant’s Ethical Thought, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (A bi-partite study of Kant’s ethics, first arguing that the several formulations of the categorical imperative are meant to be used together in moral reasoning, and then connecting Kant’s formal moral philosophy to his pessimistic empirical account of human nature.)

  • Yovel, Y. (1980) Kant and the Philosophy of History, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

    (Argues for a proto-Hegelian account of Kant’s philosophy of historical progress.)

  • Zumbach, C. (1984) The Transcendent Science: Kant’s Conception of Biological Methodology, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.

    (Focuses on Kant’s theory of organisms.)

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Citing this article:
Guyer, Paul. Bibliography. Kant, Immanuel (1724–1804), 2004, doi:10.4324/9780415249126-DB047-2. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Taylor and Francis, https://www.rep.routledge.com/articles/biographical/kant-immanuel-1724-1804/v-2/bibliography/kant-immanuel-1724-1804-bib.
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