Lange, Friedrich Albert (1828–75)

DOI: 10.4324/9780415249126-DC048-1
Version: v1,  Published online: 1998
Retrieved March 02, 2024, from

List of works

  • Lange, F.A. (1863) Die Leibesübungen (Physical Training), Gotha: Besser.

    (An early work, perhaps the earliest, on the importance of ‘body-training’ or physical education for students.)

  • Lange, F.A. (1865a) Die Arbeiterfrage in ihrer Bedeutung für Gegenwart und Zukunft (The Problem of the Worker and its Meaning for the Present and Future), Duisburg: Falk & Volmer.

    (An analysis of the rising problem of a Darwinian struggle for survival in European society as a consequence of the new social classes emerging out of increasing industrialization with emphasis upon the impact of the class of skilled workers and technicians on the balance of power in society.)

  • Lange, F.A. (1865b) J.St. Mill’s Ansichten über die sociale Frage (J.S. Mill’s Views on the Social Problem and Carey’s Supposed Social-Scientific Revolution), Duisburg: Falk & Volmer.

    (A sympathetic analysis of Mill’s democratic liberal ideals and socialist programmes, and a critique of Henry Carey’s nationalist political economic theory.)

  • Lange, F.A. (1865c) Die Grundlegung der mathematischen Psychologie (The Foundation of Mathematical Psychology), Duisburg: Falk & Volmer.

    (An attempt to place psychology on an experimental, empirical basis in terms of a mathematical model.)

  • Lange, F.A. (1866) Geschichte des Materialismus und Kritik seiner Bedeutung in der Gegenwart, Iserlohn: Baedeker; 2nd edn, Iserlohn and Leipzig: J. Baedeker, 1873– 5, 2 vols; trans. E.C. Thomas, History of Materialism, Boston, MA: Osgood, 1877, 3 vols.

    (A detailed, then-comprehensive study of the history of materialism from the ancient Greeks to 1872 (in the 2nd edition) with special emphasis on recent developments in physics, biological theory and social theory, and their impact on a Neo-Kantian epistemology, as well as ethics. A pioneering work in what was later designated philosophy of science.)

  • Lange, F.A. (1867) Neue Beiträge zur Geschichte des Materialismus (New Contributions to the History of Materialism), Iserlohn: Baedeker.

    (An updating of his work of 1866, primarily in the areas of the sciences. Most of this material was incorporated into his 2nd edition of the History of Materialism.)

  • Lange, F.A. (1877) Logische Studien (Logical Studies), Iserlohn: Baedeker.

    (An analysis of logic in terms of a nominalism that conceives of language as comprised of ‘arbitrary signs’ that refer to particulars. Logic should focus on the logical aspects of language, as well as its diachronic features.)

References and further reading

  • Ellissen, O.A. (1891) F.A. Lange, Leipzig: Baedeker.

    (Interesting biographical material in the form of letters.)

  • Salaquarda, J. (1978) ‘Nietzsche und Lange’, Nietzsche-Studien 7: 236–260, Berlin and New York: De Gruyter.

    (A concise discussion of some aspects of Lange’s impact on Nietzsche.)

  • Stack, G.J. (1983) Lange and Nietzsche, Berlin and New York: De Gruyter.

    (A comprehensive study of the influence of Lange on Nietzsche’s philosophical project, as well as on his critique of knowledge.)

  • Vaihinger, H. (1902) Die Philosophie des ‘Als-Ob’, Berlin: Reuther & Reichard; trans. C.K. Ogden, The Philosophy of ‘As-if’, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1924.

    (Contains a substantial discussion of Lange’s thought with special emphasis on his idea of the use of fictions in philosophy and science, as well as the value of edifying cultural ideals.)

  • Vaihinger, H. (1876) Hartmann, Dühring and Lange, Iserlohn: Baedeker.

    (A summary of the central conceptions of Hartmann’s philosophy of the unconscious, Dühring’s social and scientific theories, and Lange’s phenomenalism.)

Citing this article:
Stack, George J.. Bibliography. Lange, Friedrich Albert (1828–75), 1998, doi:10.4324/9780415249126-DC048-1. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Taylor and Francis,
Copyright © 1998-2024 Routledge.