Nietzsche, Friedrich (1844–1900)

DOI: 10.4324/9780415249126-DC057-1
Version: v1,  Published online: 1998
Retrieved May 23, 2019, from

List of works

  • Nietzsche, F. (1967–84) Werke: Kritische Gesamtausgabe (Complete critical works), ed. G. Colli and M. Montinari, Berlin: de Gruyter.

    (Now the standard German edition of Nietzsche’s works. Volumes of the critical apparatus are still appearing, but the books and Nachlaß were completed by 1984. A paperback edition of the essentials appeared in 1980 as Sämtliche Werke.)

  • Nietzsche, F. (1872) Die Geburt der Tragödie; trans. W. Kaufmann and R. Hollindale as The Birth of Tragedy, in Basic Writings of Nietzsche, New York: Modern Library, 1968.

    (Nietzsche’s first book, written under the influence of Wagner and Schopenhauer, with ‘Attempt at a Self-Criticism’, a preface written for the second edition of 1886. Important source for Nietzsche’s early views of art and of the Dionysian, but too bound up with the thesis that art is more truthful than science to represent Nietzsche’s later view.)

  • Nietzsche, F. (1873–6) Unzeitgemäße Betrachtungen; trans. R. Gray as Unfashionable Observations, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1995.

    (Four essays of cultural criticism from Nietzsche’s early period, in which he is still trying to elevate art over science. These essays exhibit Nietzsche’s early philosophy as a critique of modern culture, and the essays on history and Schopenhauer point forward to his later ideas of eternal recurrence and the overhuman. This work has also been translated as ‘Untimely Meditations’ and ‘Unmodern Observations’.)

  • Nietzsche, F. (1878–80) Menschliches, Allzumenschliches; trans. R. Hollingdale as Human, All Too Human, intro. R. Schacht, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

    (Represents the beginning of Nietzsche’s middle period, his turn away from Wagner, art and metaphysics, and his embrace of science and a thoroughgoing naturalism. Contains his first, relatively crude, attempts at a naturalistic understanding of moral values.)

  • Nietzsche, F. (1881) Morgenröte; trans. R. Hollingdale as Daybreak, ed. M. Clark and B. Leiter, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

    (The second work of Nietzsche’s middle period, it represents the true beginning of Nietzsche’s own way in philosophy. He called it the beginning of his ‘campaign against morality,’ and it contains much of his psychology of the will to power. This work has also been translated as ‘Dawn’.)

  • Nietzsche, F. (1882) Die Fröhliche Wissenschaft; trans. W. Kaufmann as The Gay Science, New York: Vintage, 1974.

    (The work that inaugurates Nietzsche’s final period, it announces the ‘death of God’ and contains Nietzsche’s first formulation of his idea of eternal recurrence. Book Five, added in the second edition of 1887, contains some of Nietzsche’s most important reflections on science and its connection to democracy. This work has also been translated as ‘Joyful Wisdom’.)

  • Nietzsche, F. (1883–5) Also Sprach Zarathustra; trans. W. Kaufmann as Thus spoke Zarathustra, in The Portable Nietzsche, New York: Viking, 1954.

    (Nietzsche’s work of philosophical fiction and the major source for the cosmological version of the will to power and the ideas of the overhuman and eternal recurrence. Not easily understood without knowledge of Nietzsche’s other books.)

  • Nietzsche, F. (1886) Jenseits von Gut und Böse; trans. W. Kaufmann and R. Hollingdale as Beyond Good and Evil, in Basic Writings of Nietzsche, New York: Modern Library, 1968.

    (Nietzsche at the height of his powers on philosophy and science, religion, morality, politics, nationality and nobility. A true masterpiece, but difficult.)

  • Nietzsche, F. (1887) Zur Genealogie der Moral; trans. M. Clark and A. Swensen as On the Genealogy of Morality, Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company, 1997.

    (Nietzsche’s most detailed analysis of and most important treatment of morality, considered by him as probably the most accessible introduction to his work and the ‘touchstone’ of what ‘belongs’ to him. Contains his most sustained discussion of the ascetic ideal, and was intended to clarify the title and contents of Beyond Good and Evil. This work has also been translated as ‘On the Genealogy of Morals’.)

  • Nietzsche, F. (1888a) Der Fall Wagner; trans. W. Kaufmann and R. Hollingdale as The Case of Wagner, in Basic Writings of Nietzsche, New York: Modern Library, 1968.

    (Finished at the beginning of his final year, this is an often very funny book, and a major source for Nietzsche’s views of Wagner and art.)

  • Nietzsche, F. (1888b) Die Götzen-Dämmerung, 1889; trans. W. Kaufmann as The Twilight of the Idols, in The Portable Nietzsche, New York: Viking, 1954.

    (Contains Nietzsche’s final accounts of truth and knowledge, as well as important sections on morality and art. Fairly straightforward and more accessible than many of his other works.)

  • Nietzsche, F. (1888c) Der Antichrist, 1895; trans. W. Kaufmann as The Antichrist, in The Portable Nietzsche, New York: Viking, 1954.

    (Nietzsche’s version of ‘Why I am not a Christian’. Distinguishes original Christianity from the Pauline version and gives a relatively sympathetic portrait of the former and of the one who lived it. Fairly straightforward and accessible.)

  • Nietzsche, F. (1888d) Ecce Homo, 1908; trans. W. Kaufmann and R. Hollingdale in Basic Writings of Nietzsche, New York: Modern Library, 1968.

    (Nietzsche’s autobiographical work, written in the middle of his final year, includes his own invaluable accounts of all his earlier works under the title ‘Why I write such good books’. An important source for his view of art since the autobiography is clearly intended as a work of art.)

  • Nietzsche, F. (1888e) Nietzsche contra Wagner, 1895; trans. W. Kaufmann in The Portable Nietzsche, New York: Viking, 1954.

    (Nietzsche’s last and shortest book, this is a compilation of passages from earlier works designed to show that Nietzsche and Wagner are ‘antipodes’. A source for Nietzsche’s final view of art and of the ways in which the art he promotes differs from Wagner’s.)

  • Nietzsche, F. (1906) Der Wille zur Macht,; trans. W. Kaufmann as The Will to Power, New York: Viking, 1967.

    (Although treated by many, including Nietzsche’s sister, as his magnum opus, this is not a book by Nietzsche. Rather, it is a collection of outlines, notes and jottings from his notebooks of 1883–8, selected and arranged by his sister and editors appointed by her.)

  • Nietzsche, F. (1975–84) Briefwechsel: Kritische Gesamtausgabe, ed. C. Colli and M. Montinari, Berlin: de Gruyter.

    (An edition of the complete letters to and from Nietzsche (the Nietzsche side of the correspondence was published in 1986 as Sämtliche Briefe). A 1969 English edition of selected letters, translated by Christopher Middleton, is reprinted as Selected Letters of Friedrich Nietzsche, Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company, 1996.)

  • Nietzsche, F. (1979) Philosophy and Truth: Selections from Nietzsche’s Notebooks of the early 1870’s, trans. D. Breazeale, Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press.

    (A valuable collection of material from the Nachlaß of the period surrounding the publication of The Birth of Tragedy. Includes ‘Über Wahrheit und Lüge im aussermoralischen Sinne’, trans. as ‘On Truth and Lies in a non-moral sense’, a widely known essay in which Nietzsche argues that, except for tautologies, all truths are ‘illusions’.)

References and further readings

  • Ansell-Pearson, K. (1994) An Introduction to Nietzsche as Political Thinker, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (A lively introduction to Nietzsche’s political thought.)

  • Clark, M. (1990) Nietzsche on Truth and Philosophy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (An account of the development of Nietzsche’s thinking about truth which forms the basis of the present entry. Includes chapters on truth and the ascetic ideal, the will to power and eternal recurrence.)

  • Deleuze, G. (1962) Nietzsche et la philosophie; trans. H. Tomlinson as Nietzsche and Philosophy, New York: Columbia University Press, 1983.

    (A reading of Nietzsche as anti-Hegelian; known especially for its influential distinction between active and reactive forces. An often difficult read.)

  • Derrida, J. (1978) Éperons: Les Styles de Nietzsche; trans. B. Harlow as Spurs: Nietzsche’s Styles, Chicago, IL and London: University of Chicago Press, 1979.

    (Responds to Heidegger’s interpretation of Nietzsche as a metaphysician by playing with Nietzsche’s texts rather than attempting to establish a truth about them. An example of philosophy as deconstruction. The translation is a French-English edition.)

  • Heidegger, M. (1961) Nietzsche, 2 vols; trans. D. Krell, San Francisco, CA: Harper & Row, 1979–82, 4 vols.

    (This interpretation of Nietzsche as a critic of metaphysics who was himself unable to avoid metaphysics has greatly influenced later Continental readings of Nietzsche; for advanced students who are as interested in Heidegger as in Nietzsche.)

  • Janz, C.P. (1978) Friedrich Nietzsche Biographie, Munich: Carl Hanser Verlag, 3 vols.

    (The standard biography; an English translation is in progress.)

  • Kaufmann, W. (1950) Nietzsche: Philosopher, Psychologist, Antichrist, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 4th edn, 1974.

    (A landmark study that went a long way towards destroying the picture of Nietzsche as a Nazi sympathizer and an anti-Socratic irrationalist that once dominated the English-speaking world. Still useful for this purpose.)

  • Lange, F.A. (1866) Geschichte des Materialismus und Kritik seiner Bedeutung in der Gegenwart; trans. E.C. Thomas as History of Materialism, Boston, MA: Osgood, 1977, 3 vols.

    (A history of materialism from ancient Greece to 19th century Europe which Nietzsche read during his student days at Leipzig. A major influence on his views of science and knowledge.)

  • Morgen, G. (1941) What Nietzsche Means, New York: Harper & Row.

    (Still a valuable and very accessible introduction to all the main themes of Nietzsche’s philosophy.)

  • Mueller-Lauter, W. (1971) Nietzsche: Seine Philosophie der Gegensätze und die Gegensätze seiner Philosophie (Nietzsche’s philosophy of contradictions and the contradictions of his philosophy), Berlin: de Gruyter.

    (Perhaps the most important German work on Nietzsche written after the Second World War; distinguishes the apparent from the real contradictions of Nietzsche’s philosophy of the will to power, and argues that Nietzsche’s thinking leads him to two very different versions of the overhuman. English translation in progress.)

  • Nehamas, A. (1985) Nietzsche: Life as Literature, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    (Important attempt to relate Nietzsche’s philosophical views to his literary styles, and the most important examination of how Nietzsche’s books exhibit what this entry calls Nietzsche’s ‘ideal’. Its accounts of the will to power and eternal recurrence are alternatives to those given above.)

  • Richardson, J. (1996) Nietzsche’s System, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    (A systematic, challenging account of Nietzsche’s thought that provides a more metaphysical alternative to the naturalistic Nietzsche of this entry, especially in its accounts of the will to power and perspectivism. Influenced by Continental readings of Nietzsche, especially those of Heidegger and Deleuze.)

  • Schacht, R. (1983) Nietzsche, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

    (Careful and detailed survey of all the main themes of Nietzsche’s philosophy. Its Nietzsche has a basically naturalistic orientation, but nevertheless accepts the will to power as the basic principle of life.)

  • Schopenhauer, A. (1818) Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung; trans. E.F.J. Payne as The World as Will and Representation, New York: Dover, 2 vols, 1969.

    (Perhaps the major philosophical influence on Nietzsche’s thought and development.)

  • Young, J. (1992) Nietzsche’s Philosophy of Art, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (Interesting account of Nietzsche’s view of art; highly critical of Nietzsche vis-à-vis Schopenhauer.)

Citing this article:
Clark, Maudemarie. Bibliography. Nietzsche, Friedrich (1844–1900), 1998, doi:10.4324/9780415249126-DC057-1. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Taylor and Francis,
Copyright © 1998-2019 Routledge.

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