Rawls, John (1921–2002)

DOI: 10.4324/9780415249126-S091-1
Version: v1,  Published online: 1998
Retrieved April 21, 2021, from

List of works

  • Rawls, J. (1971) A Theory of Justice, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    (Rawls’ major work.)

  • Rawls, J. (1975a) ‘The Independence of Moral Theory’, Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophy Association 48 (November): 5–22.

    (Argues that justice as fairness relies on a moral conception of the person, not a metaphysical conception of personal identity.)

  • Rawls, J. (1975b) ‘Fairness to Goodness’, Philosophical Review 84 (4): 536–554.

    (Response to early critics.)

  • Rawls, J. (1980) ‘Kantian Constructivism in Moral Philosophy’, Journal of Philosophy 77 (9): 512–572.

    (Important transitional work, in which Rawls introduces an account of Kantian constructivism.)

  • Rawls, J. (1982) ‘Social Unity and Primary Goods’, in A. Sen and B. Williams (eds) Utilitarianism and Beyond, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 159–185.

    (Contends that primary social goods are basic needs of free and equal moral persons.)

  • Rawls, J. (1985) ‘Justice as Fairness: Political, not Metaphysical’, Philosophy and Public Affairs 14 (3): 223–251.

    (Begins the transition to political liberalism.)

  • Rawls, J. (1993) Political Liberalism, New York: Columbia University Press.

    (Significant reworking of the basis of justification for ‘justice as fairness’.)

References and further reading

  • Barry, B. (1973) The Liberal Theory of Justice, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    (Early assessment of A Theory of Justice.)

  • Daniels, N. (1989) Reading Rawls, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

    (Collection of the major critical reactions to A Theory of Justice in the early 1970s by Hart, Dworkin, Daniels, Scanlon, Nagel, Hare, Sen and others.)

  • Harsanyi, J. (1982) ‘Morality and the Theory of Rational Behaviour’, in A. Sen and B. Williams (eds) Utilitarianism and Beyond, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (Argues that behind a veil of ignorance, rational agents would choose, not Rawls’ principles of justice, but maximizing average utility.)

  • Hegel, G.W.F. (1821) Philosophy of Right, trans. H.B. Nisbet, ed. A. Wood, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

    (Critical of liberal democracy and the social contract tradition on the grounds that they undermine community.)

  • Martin, R. (1985) Rawls and Rights, Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.

    (Focuses on the centrality of basic rights in Rawls’ view.)

  • Pogge, T. (1989) Realizing Rawls, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

    (Defends justice as fairness against libertarian and communitarian criticisms, and argues for applying Rawls to global justice.)

  • Sandel, M. (1982) Liberalism and the Limits of Justice, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (Communitarian criticism of Rawls.)

  • Symposium on Political Liberalism (1994), Chicago-Kent Law Review 69 (3).

    (Contains articles by Cohen, Freeman and Greenawalt, among others, on Rawls’ Political Liberalism.)

Citing this article:
Freeman, Samuel. Bibliography. Rawls, John (1921–2002), 1998, doi:10.4324/9780415249126-S091-1. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Taylor and Francis,
Copyright © 1998-2021 Routledge.

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