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Socrates (469–399 BC)

DOI
10.4324/9780415249126-A108-1
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DOI: 10.4324/9780415249126-A108-1
Version: v1,  Published online: 1998
Retrieved December 15, 2019, from https://www.rep.routledge.com/articles/biographical/socrates-469-399-bc/v-1

References and further reading

  • Aristophanes’ (c. 423) Clouds, ed. K.J. Dover, Aristophanes Clouds, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968; trans. A.H. Sommerstein, Warminster: Aris & Phillips, 1982; trans. A.H. Sommerstein, Aristophanes: Lysistrata, The Acharnians, The Clouds, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1973.

    (Classic comic portrayal of Socrates. Dover is an edition of the Greek text with explanatory notes; Sommerstein’s 1982 translation also includes the Greek text and explanatory notes.)

  • Aristotle (c. mid 4th century ) Metaphysics I 6, XIII 4, Nicomachean Ethics VII 2–3, Sophistical Refutations 34, Magna Moralia I 1, Poetics 1, in J. Barnes (ed.) The Complete Works of Aristotle, revised Oxford Translation, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984, 2 vols.

    (Important testimony on Socrates. The Magna Moralia is possibly by a follower of Aristotle, and is of uncertain date.)

  • Benson, H.H. (1992) Essays on the Philosophy of Socrates, New York: Oxford University Press.

    (Reprints fifteen of the best journal articles of the 1970s and 1980s on Socrates and Socratic philosophy; broad coverage of topics, full bibliography.)

  • Cicero, M.T. ( late 45 ) Tusculan Disputations, trans. J.E. King, Loeb Classical Library, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press and London: Heinemann, 1927.

    (Parallel Latin text and English translation.)

  • Giannantoni, G. (1990) Socratis et Socraticorum Reliquiae (The Fragments of Socrates and the Socratics), Naples: Bibliopolis, 4 vols.

    (Volumes 1 and 2 contain the surviving Greek and Latin testimonia of Socrates – other than in Plato and Xenophon – and of Antisthenes, Aeschines, Aristippus and other ‘minor’ Socratics; volume 4 has notes in Italian.)

  • Grote, G. (1875) Plato and the Other Companions of Socrates, London: Murray, 3 vols.

    (Judicious, perceptive older account of Socrates in Plato’s works and of the other Socratics; still valuable.)

  • Hegel, G.W.F. (1833–6) Lectures on the History of Philosophy, trans. E.S. Haldane and F.H. Simpson, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1892.

    (Volume 1, pages 384–487 concern Socrates and the ‘minor’ Socratics.)

  • Kierkegaard, S. (1840–1) Om Begrebet Iron, trans. L.M. Capel, The Concept of Irony, London: Collins, 1965.

    (Subtitled ‘with constant reference to Socrates’.)

  • Maier, H. (1913) Sokrates, Tübingen: Mohr.

    (Authoritative German treatment of the ‘Socratic problem’, arguing for the reliability of Plato’s testimony as against that of Xenophon.)

  • Nietzsche, F. (1872) Die Geburt der Tragödie, trans. W. Kaufmann, The Birth of Tragedy, New York: Vintage Books, 1967.

    (Sections 7–13 especially concern Socrates.)

  • Plato (c. 390s–380s) Apology, Euthyphro, Crito, Charmides, Laches, Lysis, Ion, Lesser Hippias, Protagoras, Greater Hippias, in Plato: Complete Works, ed. J.M. Cooper, Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 1997.

    (These are the works of Plato usually categorized as ‘early’ or ‘Socratic’ dialogues.)

  • Plato (c. 380s–365) Meno, Gorgias, Phaedo, Symposium, Republic I, Phaedrus, Euthydemus, Theaetetus, in Plato: Complete Works, ed. J.M. Cooper, Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 1997.

    (The philosophical ideas in these dialogues cannot in general be assumed to be those of the historical Socrates; but they do contain biographical information and characteristic portrayals of his philosophical personality and manner.)

  • Reeve, C.D.C. (1989) Socrates in the Apology, Indianapolis, IN: Hackett.

    (Commentary on Plato’s Apology in the light of Socrates’ general philosophy; accessible to the general reader.)

  • Vlastos, G. (1971) The Philosophy of Socrates, Garden City, NY: Doubleday.

    (Collection of essays: see especially G. Vlastos, ‘The Paradox of Socrates’, A.R. Lacey, ‘Our Knowledge of Socrates’, and M.F. Burnyeat, ‘Virtues in Action’.)

  • Vlastos, G. (1991) Socrates, Ironist and Moral Philosopher, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

    (Comprehensive account based on a lifetime’s engagement with Socrates’ philosophy; good bibliography.)

  • Xenophon (c. 385) Apology of Socrates to the Jury, trans. O.J. Todd, Socrates’ Defence to the Jury (Apology), Loeb Classical Library, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press and London: Heinemann, 1922.

    (Parallel Greek text and English translation.)

  • Xenophon (c. 370s) Symposium, trans. O.J. Todd, The Banquet, Loeb Classical Library, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press and London: Heinemann, 1922.

    (Parallel Greek text and English translation.)

  • Xenophon (c. 360s) Memorabilia, trans. E.C. Marchant, Memoirs, Loeb Classical Library, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press and London: Heinemann, 1923.

    (Parallel Greek text and English translation.)

  • Zeller, E. (1875) Die Philosophie der Griechen, 2. Teil, 1. Abteilung, Sokrates und die Sokratiker, trans. O.J. Reichel, Socrates and the Socratic Schools, London: Longmans, Green, 1885.

    (Exhaustive scholarly discussion and interpretation, which is still useful; part 2, section 1 concerns Socrates.)

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Citing this article:
Cooper, John M.. Bibliography. Socrates (469–399 BC), 1998, doi:10.4324/9780415249126-A108-1. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Taylor and Francis, https://www.rep.routledge.com/articles/biographical/socrates-469-399-bc/v-1/bibliography/socrates-469-399-bc-bib.
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