Jaina philosophy

DOI: 10.4324/9780415249126-F005-1
Version: v1,  Published online: 1998
Retrieved April 24, 2024, from

References and further reading

  • Bhatt, B. (1974) ‘Vyavahāra-naya and Niścaya-naya in Kundakunda’s Works’, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, supplementary vol. 2: 279–291.

    (Deals with the two standpoints mentioned in §4.)

  • Folkert, K.W. (1933) Scripture and Community: Collected Essays on the Jains, ed. J.E. Cort, Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press.

    (Deals not only with aspects of Jaina philosophy, but also Jaina scripture, monastic praxis, lay–monastic relations, rituals and community.)

  • Frauwallner, E. (1984) Nachgelassene Werke I. Aufsätze, Beiträge, Skizzen (Posthumous Works I. Essays, Contributions and Outlines), ed. E. Steinkellner, Vienna: Verlag der österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften; trans. J. Soni, Erich Frauwallner’s Posthumous Essays, New Delhi: Aditya Prakasan, 1994.

    (Frauwallner refers to the Jaina polyhistor Haribhadra to establish the original atheism of Vaiśeṣika philosophy.)

  • Halbfass, W. (1981) Indien und Europa. Perspektiven ihrer geistigen Begegnung, Basle and Stuttgart: Schwabe & Co.; India and Europe: An Essay in Philosophical Understanding, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1990.

    (See the chapter on doxography for his view described in §5; the 1990 edition contains additional material.)

  • Haribhadra (c. 8th century) Ṣaḍdarśanasamuccaya (Compendium of Six Systems), ed. M.K. Jain, Delhi: Bharatiya Jnanpith Publication, 1970, 3rd edn 1989; trans. K.S. Murphy, A Compendium of Six Philosophies, Tenali: Tagore Publishing House, 1957.

    (The Jain edition includes an explanatory translation of the text, and the commentaries of Guṇaratna and Somatilaka.)

  • Hemacandra (1089–1172) Anyayogavyavacchedikā (Critique of Other Schools), Sanskrit with Hindi trans. by P. Sāhityācārya, Agas: Rājacandra Jaina Śāstramālā, 1970; trans. F.W. Thomas, in The Flower-Spray of the Quodammodo Doctrine, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1968.

    (This work was made famous in the thirteenth century through Malliṣeṇa’s commentary on it, the Syādvādamañjarī, and is usually published with it.)

  • Hemacandra (1089–1172) Yogaśāstra, trans. A.S. Gopani, The Yoga Shastra of Hemchandracharya (A 12th Century Guide to Jain Yoga), Jaipur: Prakrit Bharti Academy, 1989.

    (Gopani’s edition also includes the Sanskrit text.)

  • Ingalls, D.H. (1951) Materials for the Study of Navya-Nyāya Logic, Harvard Oriental Series 40, Cambridge: Harvard University Press; repr. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1987.

    (One of the earliest serious attempts to present Indian logic in terms of Western logic.)

  • Jaini, P.S. (1979) The Jaina Path of Purification, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.

    (An authoritative work dealing with the nature of reality, the mechanism of bondage, the mendicant path and the attainment of the goal, among other matters.)

  • Jayarāśi (c. 9th century) Tattvopaplavasiṃha (The Lion that Destroys Philosophical Categories), ed. S. Sanghavi and R. Parikh, Gaekward Oriental Series 87, Baroda: University of Baroda, 1940; trans. E. Franco, Perception, Knowledge and Disbelief: A Study of Jayarāśi’s Scepticism, Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1987; 2nd edn, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1994.

    (The only extant text of the Indian materialist school called Cārvāka, known for its radical scepticism.)

  • Kundakunda (2nd or 3rd century) Pravacanasāra (Essence of the Scripture), ed. and trans. A.N. Upadhye, Gujarat: Shrimad Rajachandra Ashrama, 1984.

    (The Prakrit text, critically edited with Sanskrit and Hindi commentaries, together with an English translation and a scholarly introduction on the linguistic and philosophical aspects of this and other works by Kundakunda.)

  • Kundakunda (2nd or 3rd century) Pañcāstikāyasāra (Essence of the Five Existents), ed. A.N. Upadhye, Pañcāstikāyasāra: The Building of the Cosmos, Delhi: Bharatiya Jnanpith Publication, 1975.

    (Contains the Prakrit text, a Sanskrit translation by the tenth-century commentator Amṛtacandra, an English translation by A. Chakravartinayanar, and an introduction to Jaina philosophy.)

  • Kundakunda (2nd or 3rd century) Samayasāra (Essence of the Doctrine), ed. Pannalāla Sāhityācārya, Varanasi: ŚrīGaṇeśaprasāda VarṇīGranthamālā, 1969.

    (Prakrit text with Hindi translation and commentary, with an introduction including Kundakunda’s biography.)

  • Māṇikyanandin (9th century) Parīkṣāmukham (Gateway of Investigation), trans. and ed. S.C. Ghosal, Parīkṣāmukham by Māṇikyanandī, Lucknow: Ajitasram, 1940.

    (The text of this influential ninth-century Jaina thinker is translated into English, with comments; the introduction contains an excellent survey of Jaina epistemology.)

  • Matilal, B.K. (1968) The Navya-Nyāya Doctrine of Negation: The Semantics and Ontology of Negative Statements in Navya-Nyāya Philosophy, Harvard Oriental Series 46, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    (Presents Indian logic in terms of Western logic.)

  • Matilal, B.K. (1971) Epistemology, Logic and Grammar in Indian Philosophical Analysis, The Hague: Mouton.

    (Presents Indian logic in Western terms, but not restricted to one school as in Matilal 1968.)

  • Ohira, S. (1982) A Study of the Tattvārthasūtra with Bhaṣya. With Special Reference to Authorship and Date, Ahmedabad: L.D. Institute of Indology.

    (Deals with the issues of date and authorship of Umāsvāti’s pioneering work on Jaina philosophy, including the debate over the authorship of an auto-commentary.)

  • Pūjyapāda (c. 5th century) Sarvārthasiddhi (Attainment of the Meaning of Everything), trans. S.A. Jain, Reality, Madras: Jwalamalini Trust, 1960, repr. 1992.

    (This is the first commentary, according to the Digambara sect, on Umāsvāti’s Tattvārthasūtra, the standard work on Jaina philosophy.)

  • Settar, S. (1986) Inviting Death: Historical Experiments on Sepulchral Hill, Dharwad: Karnatak University.

    (Deals with the ‘passionless death’ mentioned in §3.)

  • Settar, S. (1990) Pursuing Death: Philosophy and Practice of Voluntary Termination of Life, Dharwad: Karnatak University.

    (Deals with the ‘passionless death’ mentioned in §3.)

  • Siddhasena (5th century) Nyāyāvatāra (The Descent of Logic), trans. S.C. Vidyabhusan, in A.N. Upadhye (ed.) Siddhasena’s Nyāyāvatāra and Other Works, Bombay: Jaina Sāhitya Vikāsa Maṇḍala.

    (A collection of works containing the text of the Nyāyāvatāra, with English translation and notes, the texts of two other works by Siddhasena, Twenty-one Dvātriṃśikās and the Sammaisuttam (Mnemonics on Proper Understanding), an informative introduction and a bibliographic survey.)

  • Sikdar, J.C. (1991) Theory of Reality in Jaina Philosophy, Varanasi: P.V. Research Institute.

    (Deals with Jaina ontology on the basis of original texts, comparing the Jaina view with other schools of Indian thought.)

  • Singh, R.J. (1974) The Jaina Concept of Omniscience, Ahmedabad: L.D. Institute of Indology.

    (Examines the traditional arguments for and against omniscience.)

  • Soni, J. (1991) ‘ Dravya, Guṇa and Paryāya in Jaina Thought’, Journal of Indian Philosophy 19: 75–81.

    (Places in philosophical context the issue of substance, quality and mode in Jainism; a more detailed discussion of the question of change and permanence according to Kundakunda described in §4.)

  • Soni, J. (1996a) Aspects of Jaina Philosophy, Madras: Research Foundation for Jainology, for University of Madras Department of Jainism.

    (Deals with karma theory and Jaina ethics, the Jaina theory of manifoldness and Vidyānandin’s commentary on Tattvarthasūtra I, 6, on the means of knowledge.)

  • Soni, J. (1996b) The Notion of Āpta in Jaina Philosophy, Toronto, Ont.: University of Toronto, Centre for South Asia Studies.

    (Discusses the Jaina view that a trustworthy person (āpta) is a source of knowledge and compares the Jaina view of reality with that of the Śaiva Siddhānta tradition.)

  • Soni, J. (forthcoming) ‘Aspects of Jaina Epistemology with Special Reference to Vidyānandin’, paper presented at conference ‘Approaches to Jain Studies’, Toronto March 31–April 2 1995, to be published in conference volume.

    (Deals especially with Vidyānandin’s debate with the Buddhists – in which he even quotes Dharmakīrti – over the issue of parts and wholes, or universals and particulars, as mentioned in §3.)

  • Staal, J.F. (1960) ‘Correlations Between Language and Logic in Indian Thought’, Bulletin of the School of African and Oriental Studies 23: 109–122.

    (Presents Indian logic in terms of Western logic, as do some of Staal’s subsequent articles.)

  • Suklalji, P. (1974) Tattvārthasūtra of Vācaka Umāsvāti, trans. K.K. Dixit, Ahmedabad: L.D. Institute of Indology.

    (A modern commentary by a renowned authority on Jaina philosophy, with an introduction about the original author and commentaries on the work.)

  • Tatia, N. (1951) Studies in Jaina Philosophy, Varanasi: P.V. Research Institute.

    (A systematic interpretation of Jaina philosophy based on a critique of other schools.)

  • Umāsvāti (c. 2nd century) Tattvārthādhigamasūtra (Mnemonics on the Meaning of the Fundamental Principles), trans. and ed. J.L. Jaini, Sacred Books of the Jainas 2, Arrah: The Central Jaina Publishing House, 1920; repr. New Delhi: Today and Tomorrow’s Printers and Publishers, 1990; trans. N. Tatia, Tattvārtha Sūtra: That Which Is, London: HarperCollins, 1994.

    (The first work in Sanskrit which summarizes the whole of Jaina philosophy in traditional, classical style. Jaini’s edition supplies the differences between the Digambara and Śvetāmbara versions of the text. Tatia’s translation takes into consideration the commentaries of Umāsvāti, Pūjyapāda and Sīddhasenagaṇi.)

  • Umāsvāti (c. 2nd century) Praśamaratiprakaraṇa (Treatise on the Love for Tranquility), trans. and ed. Y.S. Shastri, Ahmedabad: L.D. Institute of Indology, 1989.

    (A popular and simple work presenting the basics of Jaina thought.)

  • Vādidevasūri (12th century) Syādvādaratnākara (The Ocean of Manifoldness), Delhi: Bhāratīya Book Corporation, 1988.

    (Sanskrit text. An influential Śvetāmbara thinker deals with various aspects of Jaina philosophy.)

  • Yaśovijaya (17th century) Jaina Tarka Bhāṣā (The Language of Jaina Logic), trans. and ed. D. Bhargava, Mahopādhyāya Yaśovijaya’s Jaina Tarka Bhāṣā , Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1973.

    (A critical edition of a popular treatise on Jaina epistemology serving also as a manual of Jaina logic.)

  • Zydenbos, R.J. (1983) Mokṣa in Jainism According to Umāsvāti, Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag.

    (Deals with liberation, the subject of chapter 10 of Umāsvāti’s Tattvārthasūtra; includes text and translation, a commentary attributed to Umāsvāti and an introduction to the problem.)

Citing this article:
Soni, Jayandra. Bibliography. Jaina philosophy, 1998, doi:10.4324/9780415249126-F005-1. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Taylor and Francis,
Copyright © 1998-2024 Routledge.

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