Version: v1, Published online: 2003
Retrieved June 04, 2020, from https://www.rep.routledge.com/articles/thematic/cloning/v-1
References and further reading
DOH (Department of Health) (2000) Stem Cell Research: Medical Progress with Responsibility. A report from the Chief Medical Officer’s Expert Group reviewing the potential of developments in stem cell research and cell nuclear replacement to benefit human health, London: DOH, June.
(Cloning is announced by the clone-maker.)
International declarations (in chronological order)
Council of Europe Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine (4 April 1997), art. 18, prohibits the creation of embryos for research, which rules out any application of CNR, given that the primary objective of CNR techniques is creating embryos. Available at http://conventions.coe.int/treaty/en/treaties/html/164.htm
UNESCO Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights (11 November 1997). This document contains the first international ban on reproductive use of CNR. See in particular art. 11: ‘practices which are contrary to human dignity, such as reproductive cloning of human beings, shall not be permitted’. Available at www.unesco.org/ibc/en/genome.
Additional Protocol to the Council of Europe Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine (1998). In the Preamble of this document, it is recognized the benefits that CNR techniques ‘may bring to scientific knowledge and its medical application’. However, this document prohibits reproductive use of CNR on the grounds that it would involve instrumentalization of the child. See the Preamble: ‘the instrumentalisation of human beings through the deliberate creation of genetically identical human beings is contrary to human dignity and thus constitutes a misuse of biology and medicine’. See also art.1: ‘Any intervention seeking to create a human being genetically identical to another human being, whether living or dead, is prohibited’. Available at www.conventions.cow.int/treaty/en/treaties/html/168.htm.
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (2000). This charter also declares ‘the prohibition of the reproductive cloning of human beings’ (art. 3). Available at www.europarl.eu.int/charter/default/en.htm.
Harris, John and Simona Giordano. Bibliography. Cloning, 2003, doi:10.4324/9780415249126-L142-1. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Taylor and Francis, https://www.rep.routledge.com/articles/thematic/cloning/v-1/bibliography/cloning-bib.
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