DOI: 10.4324/9780415249126-L142-1
Version: v1,  Published online: 2003
Retrieved June 04, 2020, from

References and further reading

  • Buchanan, A., Brock, D.W., Daniels, N. and Wickler, D. (2000) From Chance to Choice: Genetics and Justice, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (Rigorous and demanding essay on genetics and justice.)

  • Burley, J. and Harris, J. (1999) ‘Human Cloning and Child Welfare’, Journal of Medical Ethics 25 (2): 108–114.

    (Essay focused on the objections to cloning based on the welfare of the child.)

  • DOH (Department of Health) (2000) Stem Cell Research: Medical Progress with Responsibility. A report from the Chief Medical Officer’s Expert Group reviewing the potential of developments in stem cell research and cell nuclear replacement to benefit human health, London: DOH, June.

    (This document provides clear guidelines concerning the technical and ethical issues surrounding stem cell research in general; contains sections on CNR.)

  • Harris, J. (1980) The Value of Life, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

    (Provocative introduction to medical ethics.)

  • Harris, J. (1998) Clones, Genes and Immortality, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    (Essay on the ethics and politics of the genetic revolution.)

  • Harris, J. (1999) ‘The Concept of the Person and the Value of Life’, Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 9 (4): 293–308.

    (Comprehensive discussion of the ethical arguments associated with personhood.)

  • Harris, J. (2000) ‘The Welfare of the Child’, Health Care Analysis 8 (1): 27–34.

    (Analysis of the concept of child welfare.)

  • House of Lords (2002) Stem Cell Research, Report from the Select Committee, London: Stationery Office.

    (Technical, ethical, social and legal issues surrounding stem cell research are analysed in this comprehensive document; includes sections on cloning.)

  • Hursthouse, R. (1987) Beginning Lives, Oxford: Basil Blackwell in association with the Open University.

    (Good introduction to ethical arguments concerning creating human lives.)

  • McLaren, A. (2000) ‘The Decade of the Sheep’, Nature 403: 479–480.

    (Cloning examined by a leading embryologist.)

  • Neri, D. (2001) La Bioetica in Laboratorio, Rome and Bari: Laterza.

    (This book explores the moral dilemmas due to advances in biomedical research. It contains a section on the official positions of religions on CNR and embryo research. See especially pp. 170–6.)

  • Nussbaum, M.C. and Sunstein, R.C. (1998) Clones and Clones, New York: Pbk editions.

    (Contains an early discussion of cloning.)

  • Oderberg, D. (2000a) Moral Theory: A Non-consequentialist Approach, Oxford: Blackwell.

    (Discusses moral theory from a strongly Catholic and natural law perspective.)

  • Oderberg, D. (2000b) Applied Ethics: A Non-consequentialist Approach, Oxford: Blackwell.

    (Discusses ethics from a strongly Catholic and natural law perspective.)

  • O’Neill, O. (2001) Autonomy and Trust in Bioethics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (Excellent discussion of contemporary bioethics hostile to human cloning.)

  • Warnock, M. (2002) Making Babies: Is There a Right to Have Children?, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    (Recent essay on the ethics of baby-making by one of the most influential philosophers in the field.)

  • Wilmut, I. et al. (1997) ‘Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells’, Nature 27 February.

    (Cloning is announced by the clone-maker.)

    International declarations (in chronological order)

    Council of Europe Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine (4 April 1997), art. 18, prohibits the creation of embryos for research, which rules out any application of CNR, given that the primary objective of CNR techniques is creating embryos. Available at

    UNESCO Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights (11 November 1997). This document contains the first international ban on reproductive use of CNR. See in particular art. 11: ‘practices which are contrary to human dignity, such as reproductive cloning of human beings, shall not be permitted’. Available at

    Additional Protocol to the Council of Europe Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine (1998). In the Preamble of this document, it is recognized the benefits that CNR techniques ‘may bring to scientific knowledge and its medical application’. However, this document prohibits reproductive use of CNR on the grounds that it would involve instrumentalization of the child. See the Preamble: ‘the instrumentalisation of human beings through the deliberate creation of genetically identical human beings is contrary to human dignity and thus constitutes a misuse of biology and medicine’. See also art.1: ‘Any intervention seeking to create a human being genetically identical to another human being, whether living or dead, is prohibited’. Available at

    Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (2000). This charter also declares ‘the prohibition of the reproductive cloning of human beings’ (art. 3). Available at

Citing this article:
Harris, John and Simona Giordano. Bibliography. Cloning, 2003, doi:10.4324/9780415249126-L142-1. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Taylor and Francis,
Copyright © 1998-2020 Routledge.

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