DOI: 10.4324/9780415249126-S007-1
Version: v1,  Published online: 1998
Retrieved June 24, 2021, from

References and further reading

  • Feinberg, J. (1986) Harm to Self, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 189–268.

    (Argues against paternalistic justifications for coercive interference with a person’s voluntary conduct. Considers the ways in which one person’s consent to another’s action can fall short of voluntariness, including the case in which ‘consent’ is acquired through the use of coercive action. Includes a discussion of the ‘lecherous millionaire’, §3.)

  • Fletcher, G. (1978) Rethinking Criminal Law, Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 759–876.

    (Discusses the theory of criminal defences, both justifications and excuses, in particular, those of duress and necessity and the relations between the two.)

  • Frankfurt, H. (1973) ‘Coercion and Moral Responsibility’, in T. Honderich (ed.) Essays on Freedom of Action, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

    (Discusses coercion as an exercise in moral discourse. An influential article.)

  • Gross, H. (1979) A Theory of Criminal Justice, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 276–291.

    (A systematic theory of criminal law which includes a discussion of coercion as an excuse in criminal law.)

  • Nozick, R. (1969) ‘Coercion’, in S. Morgenbesser, P. Suppes and M. White (eds) Philosophy, Science and Method, New York: St Martin’s Press.

    (A classic source for discussion of ‘norms of expectability’ and their use in distinguishing threats from offers.)

  • Taylor, M. (1982) Community, Anarchy and Liberty, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (Asks whether a society without state coercion could ever achieve durable stability, and if so, under what conditions. Examines the relations – conceptual and empirical – between coercion and community.)

  • Wertheimer, A. (1987) Coercion, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

    (One of the few book-length analyses of the concept of coercion, both in law and everyday life. Contains detailed discussion of the relation between coercive threats and offers, coercion and exploitation, and coercion and voluntariness.)

  • Williams, G. (1961) Criminal Law: The General Part, London: Stevens & Sons Limited, 751–769.

    (A thorough and authoritative examination of the treatment of coercion in English law. Attempts to resolve various controversies about coercion among criminal law theorists.)

  • Zimmerman, D. (1981) ‘Coercive Wage Offers’, Philosophy and Public Affairs 10 (12): 121–145.

    (An influential article defending an analysis of economic exploitation and coercion, and the differences between the two.)

Citing this article:
Feinberg, Joel. Bibliography. Coercion, 1998, doi:10.4324/9780415249126-S007-1. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Taylor and Francis,
Copyright © 1998-2021 Routledge.

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