DOI: 10.4324/9780415249126-L018-1
Version: v1,  Published online: 1998
Retrieved April 22, 2021, from

References and further reading

Some of these items involve intricate argument but few are technical.

  • Anscombe, G.E.M. (1958) ‘Modern moral philosophy’, Philosophy 33: 1–19.

    (A powerful attack on the use of the concept of duty in secular philosophy.)

  • Bennett, J. (1995) The Act Itself, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

    (A discussion of the nature of action, including whether there is a morally significant difference between positive and negative actions.)

  • Frazier, R.L. (1995) ‘Moral relevance and ceteris paribus principles’, Ratio 8: 115–127.

    (A modern account of prima facie duties.)

  • Gauthier, D. (1986) Morals By Agreement, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    (A modern defence of contractarianism.)

  • Gowans, C. (1987) Moral Dilemmas, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    (A collection of articles concerning the possibility of moral dilemmas.)

  • Helm, P. (1981) Divine Commands and Morality, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    (A collection containing articles on the proposal that God imposes duties on us.)

  • Hobbes, T. (1651) Leviathian, ed. J.P. Plamenatz, London: Collins, 1962.

    (The classic statement of contractarianism.)

  • Hume, D. (1739/40) A Treatise of Human Nature, ed. L.A. Selby-Bigge, revised by P.H. Nidditch, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2nd edn, 1978.

    (The classic account of the view that what seem to be moral claims are actually expressions of moral sentiments.)

  • Kant, I. (1785) Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten, in Kants gesammelte Schriften, ed. Königlichen Preußischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin: Reimer, vol. 4, 1903; trans. with notes by H.J. Paton, Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals (originally The Moral Law), London: Hutchinson, 1948; repr. New York: Harper & Row, 1964.

    (References made to this work in the entry give the page number from the 1903 Berlin Akademie volume; these page numbers are included in the Paton translation. This classic work contains the argument that we impose duties on ourselves.)

  • Korsgaard, C.M. (1996) The Sources of Normativity, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (A Neo-Kantian account of the grounds of duty, with a good discussion of alternative proposals.)

  • Mackie, J.L. (1977) Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong, Harmondsworth: Penguin.

    (Contains a good introductory discussion of the problems with thinking that duty can be imposed on us by the nature of the universe.)

  • Sayre-McCord, G. (1988) Essays on Moral Realism, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

    (A collection of articles concerning whether the nature of the universe can provide the grounds of duty. It contains a very good introductory chapter.)

  • Sinnott-Armstrong, W. and Timmons, M. (1996) Moral Knowledge? New Readings in Moral Epistemology, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    (A collection of articles on the possibility of moral knowledge, containing a very good annotated bibliography.)

  • Rawls, J. (1971) A Theory of Justice, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    (A very influential defence of a position which is an interesting combination of a contractarian and a Neo-Kantian approach to ethics.)

  • Ross, W.D. (1930) The Right and the Good, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    (The source of a notion of a prima facie duty.)

  • Thomson, J.J. (1990) The Realm of Rights, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    (Includes a discussion of the relationship between duties and rights, and a discussion of who (or what) can have rights and duties.)

  • White, A.R. (1984) Rights, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

    (Includes a discussion of the relationship between duties and rights, and a discussion of who (or what) can have rights and duties.)

  • Williams, B. (1985) Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press and London: Fontana.

    (A collection of articles supporting the view that duty-based moral systems are not sensitive to a wide range of important ethical considerations.)

  • Zimmerman, M.J. (1996) The Concept of Moral Obligation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (A very general and comprehensive account of obligation (or duty), which gives close consideration to many of the topics discussed in this entry.)

Citing this article:
Frazier, Robert L.. Bibliography. Duty, 1998, doi:10.4324/9780415249126-L018-1. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Taylor and Francis,
Copyright © 1998-2021 Routledge.

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