mid 4th century
) Generation of Animals, in J.
Barnes (ed.) The Complete Works of Aristotle, vol. 1, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984, 1111–218.
(Aristotle’s discussion of male and female roles in procreation.)
Beauvoir, S. de (1949) The Second Sex , trans. and ed. H.M.
Parshley, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1972.
(The classic existentialist interpretation of masculinity and femininity and a path-breaking analysis of the social construction of gender.)
Davies, E. (1866) The Higher Education of Women, London: Hambledon, 1988.
(The case for women’s education put by a pioneer.)
Engels, F. (1884) The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State, intro. M.
Barrett, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1985.
(A vastly influential discussion of the family by one of the founders of Marxism. )
Firestone, S. (1970) The Dialectic of Sex, London: The Women’s Press, 1979.
(Firestone argues that women’s oppression lies in their reproductive role and that the goal of feminist revolution is the elimination of sexual difference.)
Goldman, E. (1972) Red Emma Speaks. Selected Speeches and Writings of the anarchist and feminist Emma Goldman, ed. A.
Kates Shulman, New York: Random House.
(Includes selections from Goldman’s writing on the individual and the state, woman’s emancipation, prostitution and marriage.)
Gouges, O. de (1782) The Rights of Women, trans. V.
Stevenson, London: Pythia, 1989.
(An impressive early statement of women’s rights.)
Gournay, M. Le Jars de (1622) Égalité des Hommes et des Femmes, Paris: Côté-Femme, 1989.
(A brief defence of the equality of the sexes by a woman whom Montaigne described as his adopted daughter. This edition includes the Grief des Dames, a defence of women of letters.)
Griffith, E. (1984) In her own Right. The life of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, New York: Oxford University Press.
(A biography of one of the best-known US suffragists.)
Kollontai, A. (1977) Selected Writings, trans. and intro. A.
Holt, London: Allison & Busby.
(Includes selections from Kollontai’s writing on women and work, work and motherhood, communism, the family and marriage.)
Lloyd, G. (1984) The Man of Reason, London: Methuen.
(Innovative analysis of the prevalence of the association of women and irrationality within the philosophical tradition.)
Maclean, I. (1977) Woman Triumphant. Feminism in French literature 1610–1652, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
(A study of works by and about women in seventeenth-century France. Includes a chapter on the Querelle des femmes.)
Mill, J.S. (1869) On the Subjection of Women, in S.
Collini (ed.) On Liberty and other Writings, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
(A classic, nineteenth-century account of the advantages of giving women the same access to education and work, and the same civil rights, as men.)
Millett, K. (1969) Sexual Politics, London: Virago, 1977.
(A formative analysis of the construction of femininity in twentieth-century literature and in social theory.)
Oakley, A. (1972) Sex, Gender and Society, London: Temple Smith.
(An influential discussion of the biological and social aspects of sexuality.)
Pateman, C. (1989) The Disorder of Women, Cambridge: Polity Press.
(Includes seminal essays on the place of women in contractarian political theories.)
Perkins Gilman, C. (1919) Herland, London: Women’s Press, 1979.
(Utopian novel by a leading American feminist about a community of women who live without men.)
Pizan, C. de (1405) The Book of the City of Ladies, trans. E.J.
Richards, New York: Persea Books, 1982.
(An exchange between Christine and the figures of Reason, Rectitude and Justice, who reassure her that women are not evil and instruct her to build a city for ladies.)
Poulain de la Barre, F. (1673) The Equality of the Sexes, trans. D.M.
Clarke, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990.
(An early defence, along Cartesian lines, of the equality of the sexes.)
Sartre, J.-P. (1943) Being and Nothingness, trans. H.
Barnes, London: Methuen, 1958.
(Sartre’s classic work, mentioned in §5 above.)
Wollstonecraft, M. (1792) A Vindication of the Rights of Women, in S.
Tomaselli (ed.) A Vindication of the Rights of Man and A Vindication of the Rights of Women, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
(A classic defence of the view that women and men have the same rights though different social roles.)