Freedom and liberty

DOI: 10.4324/9780415249126-S026-1
Version: v1,  Published online: 1998
Retrieved April 25, 2018, from

References and further reading

  • Arneson, R.J. (1985) ‘Freedom and Desire’, Canadian Journal of Philosophy 15 (3): 425–448.

    (Considers the question whether amounts of freedom can be measured, and if so, what role the free person’s desires play in the process.)

  • Benn, S.I. and Weinstein, W.L. (1971) ‘Being Free to Act and Being a Free Man’, Mind 80 (3): 194–211.

    (Argues that the concept of freedom presupposes a concept of autonomy; that is, the concept of the free person as chooser.)

  • Berlin, I. (1958) ‘Two Concepts of Liberty’, in Four Essays on Liberty, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1969; repr. in D. Miller (ed.) Liberty Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.

    (Classic source of the distinction between positive and negative liberty.)

  • Dworkin, G. (1982) ‘Is More Choice Better than Less?’, in P.A. French, T.E. Uehling, Jr and H.K. Wettstein (eds) Midwest Studies in Philosophy, VII, Minneapolis, MN: Minnesota University Press, 47–61.

    (Considers the question of whether more choices are always preferable to fewer for a rational individual, concluding that more is not always better.)

  • Feinberg, J. (1973) Social Philosophy, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

    (This introduction to social and philosophy concentrates on the concept and limits of freedom, the distinction between legal and moral rights, and the concept of social justice.)

  • Feinberg, J. (1980) ‘The Interest in Liberty on the Scales’, and ‘The Idea of a Free Man’, in Rights, Justice, and the Bounds of Liberty, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

    (The former deals with the problem of weighing the interest in liberty against other interests in the effort to minimalize social harms; the latter probes for conceptual linkages between the idea of a free person and of a free society by considering how the word ‘free’ has come to apply to both.)

  • Gray, J.N. (1980) ‘On Negative and Positive Liberty’, Political Studies 28 (4): 507–526.

    (Important critique of the theory of Isaiah Berlin.)

  • Green, T.H. (1888) ‘Liberal Legislation and Freedom of Contract’, in Works of Thomas Hill Green, vol. 3, ed. R.L. Nettleship, London: Longmans Green; abridged by D. Miller (ed.) Liberty, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.

    (The author defines freedom as ‘a positive power or capacity of doing or enjoying something worth doing or enjoying, and that too, something that we do or enjoy in common with others’.)

  • MacCallum, G.C. (1967) ‘Negative and Positive Freedom’, Philosophical Review 76 (3): 312–334; repr. in D. Miller (ed.) Liberty, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.

    (Argues that there is only one concept of liberty; namely, that expressed in the schema x (the actor) is free from y (constraining condition) to do or become z.)

  • Miller, D. (1991) Liberty, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    (The most useful bibliography of philosophical analyses of freedom. Contains, among other things, influential articles by T.H. Green, Isaiah Berlin, Gerald C. MacCallum and G.A. Cohen.)

  • Pelczynski, Z.A. and Gray, J.N. (1984) Conceptions of Liberty in Political Philosophy, London: Athlone Press.

    (Contemporary authors discuss the differing conceptions of freedom that appear throughout the history of philosophy, from the ancient Greeks to John Rawls. A major theme is the comparison of the various views with Berlin’s distinction between positive and negative freedom.)

  • Rawls, J. (1971) A Theory of Justice, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 201–210.

    (Claims that the usual debates about liberty are not properly conceived of as disputes about the proper definition of ‘liberty’. Instead, the concern is with the relative values of several distinct liberties, which can conflict.)

  • Swanton, C. (1992) Freedom: A Coherence Theory, Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Company.

    (Argues that a properly conceived coherence model can provide a theory of freedom that reconciles a wide variety of views on freedom while retaining the strengths of each.)

Citing this article:
Feinberg, Joel. Bibliography. Freedom and liberty, 1998, doi:10.4324/9780415249126-S026-1. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Taylor and Francis,
Copyright © 1998-2018 Routledge.

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