Aiken, W. and La Follette, H. (1996) World Hunger and Morality, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
(Useful introductory collection on the topic.)
Cohen, J. (1981) ‘Who is Starving Whom?’, Theoria
(Defends a principle of beneficence requiring people to do only their ‘fair share’.)
Kagan, S. (1989) The Limits of Morality, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
(Defends a maximizing principle of beneficence.)
Kant, I. (1797) Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Tugendlehre, trans.
Ellington, Metaphysical Principles of Virtue, Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company, 1964.
(Advocates less stringent principle of beneficence.)
Locke, J. (1690) Two Treatises of Government, ed.
Laslett, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1963.
(Suggests we are required to meet the serious needs of any person.)
Murphy, L. (1993) ‘The Demands of Beneficence’, Philosophy and Public Affairs
22 (4): 267–292.
(General discussion of the problem of demands and defence of a principle of beneficence requiring people to sacrifice only as much as it would be optimal to sacrifice under full compliance.)
Nagel, T. (1986) The View From Nowhere, New York: Oxford University Press, ch. 10.
(Influential general discussion of the problem of demands.)
O’Neill, O. (1989) ‘The Great Maxims of Justice and Charity’, in Constructions of Reason, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(Defends a broadly Kantian approach, and includes a very helpful discussion of the liberal egalitarian interpretation of benficence.)
Paul, E.F., Miller, F.D. and Paul, J. (1987) Beneficence, Philanthropy and the Public Good, New York: Blackwell.
(Collection devoted to beneficence, offering a variety of approaches.)
Paul, E.F., Miller, F.D. and Paul, J. (1993) Altruism, New York: Cambridge University Press.
(Collection featuring different perspectives on altruism.)
Rawls, J. (1971) A Theory of Justice, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
(Influential contemporary theory of justice.)
Ross, W.D. (1930) The Right and the Good, Oxford: Clarendon Press; repr., Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company, 1988.
(Advocates the principle of beneficence as one among others.)
Scheffler, S. (1992) Human Morality, New York: Oxford University Press.
(Defends limits to required sacrifice.)
Singer, P. (1972) ‘Famine, Affluence, and Morality’, Philosophy and Public Affairs
1 (3): 229–243; repr. in W.
Aiken and H.
La Follette (eds) World Hunger and Morality, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996.
(Influential article, claiming that morality requires us to sacrifice our interests for those in the developing world.)
Unger, P. (1996) Living High and Leting Die, New York: Oxford University Press.
(Extensive discussion of the difficulty of distinguishing between rescue cases and non-rescue cases, and defence of a stringent requirement to help those in need.)
Williams, B. (1981) ‘Persons, Character and Morality’, in Moral Luck: Philosophical Papers 1973–80, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(Criticism of the strict impartiality of modern moral theory.)