DOI: 10.4324/9780415249126-S030-1
Version: v1,  Published online: 1998
Retrieved April 23, 2019, from

References and further reading

  • Althusser, L. (1984) Essays on Ideology, London: Verso.

    (Referred to in §1. A significant reappraisal of ideology within the Marxist tradition.)

  • Bell, D. (1960) The End of Ideology: On the Exhaustion of Political Ideas in the Fifties, Glencoe, IL: Free Press.

    (The most prominent statement on the subject.)

  • Freeden, M. (1996) Ideologies and Political Theory: A Conceptual Approach, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

    (An elaboration of the argument in §4.)

  • Gallie, W.B. (1955–6) ‘Essentially Contested Concepts’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 56: 167–198.

    (A seminal analysis of political concepts referred to in §4.)

  • Geertz, C. (1964) ‘Ideology as a Cultural System’, in D.E. Apter (ed.) Ideology and Discontent, New York: Free Press, 47–76.

    (A groundbreaking article, referred to in §3.)

  • Gramsci, A. (1971) Selections from Prison Notebooks, ed. Q. Hoare and G. Newell-Smith, London: Lawrence & Wishart.

    (The influential text on ideology as hegemony.)

  • Larrain, J. (1979) The Concept of Ideology, London: Hutchinson.

    (A sophisticated overview, supportive of the critical function of ideology.)

  • Mannheim, K. (1929) Ideology and Utopia, London: Routledge, 1936.

    (A modern classic on the subject, despite a confusing usage of terminology.)

  • Marx, K. and Engels, F. (1846) The German Ideology, ed. C.J. Arthur, London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1974.

    (The foundational Marxist analysis of ideology.)

  • Mullins, W.A. (1972) ‘On the Concept of Ideology in Political Science’, American Political Science Review 66: 498–510.

    (A good illustration of the approach of contemporary political science.)

  • Sartori, G. (1969) ‘Politics, Ideology, and Belief Systems’, American Political Science Review 63: 398–411.

    (An example of confining ideology to closed, non-empirical systems.)

  • Thompson, J.B. (1984) Studies in the Theory of Ideology, Oxford: Polity Press.

    (A perceptive assessment of a range of current views on ideology.)

Citing this article:
Freeden, Michael. Bibliography. Ideology, 1998, doi:10.4324/9780415249126-S030-1. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Taylor and Francis,
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