Althusser, L. (1984) Essays on Ideology, London: Verso.
(Referred to in §1. A significant reappraisal of ideology within the Marxist tradition.)
Bell, D. (1960) The End of Ideology: On the Exhaustion of Political Ideas in the Fifties, Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
(The most prominent statement on the subject.)
Freeden, M. (1996) Ideologies and Political Theory: A Conceptual Approach, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
(An elaboration of the argument in §4.)
Gallie, W.B. (1955–6) ‘Essentially Contested Concepts’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society
(A seminal analysis of political concepts referred to in §4.)
Geertz, C. (1964) ‘Ideology as a Cultural System’, in D.E.
Apter (ed.) Ideology and Discontent, New York: Free Press, 47–76.
(A groundbreaking article, referred to in §3.)
Gramsci, A. (1971) Selections from Prison Notebooks, ed.
Hoare and G.
Newell-Smith, London: Lawrence & Wishart.
(The influential text on ideology as hegemony.)
Larrain, J. (1979) The Concept of Ideology, London: Hutchinson.
(A sophisticated overview, supportive of the critical function of ideology.)
Mannheim, K. (1929) Ideology and Utopia, London: Routledge, 1936.
(A modern classic on the subject, despite a confusing usage of terminology.)
Marx, K. and Engels, F. (1846) The German Ideology, ed.
Arthur, London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1974.
(The foundational Marxist analysis of ideology.)
Mullins, W.A. (1972) ‘On the Concept of Ideology in Political Science’, American Political Science Review
(A good illustration of the approach of contemporary political science.)
Sartori, G. (1969) ‘Politics, Ideology, and Belief Systems’, American Political Science Review
(An example of confining ideology to closed, non-empirical systems.)
Thompson, J.B. (1984) Studies in the Theory of Ideology, Oxford: Polity Press.
(A perceptive assessment of a range of current views on ideology.)