Baier, A. (1991) ‘Violent Demonstrations’, in R.G.
Frey and C.W.
Violence, Terrorism, and Justice, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 33–58.
(One of a several essays discussing the problem of terrorism; referred to in §4.)
Barry, B. (1989) Theories of Justice, vol. 1, A Treatise on Social Justice. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 183–189.
(Discussion of Rawls, with special reference to international justice.)
Barry, B. (1995a) Justice as Impartiality, vol 2, A Treatise on Social Justice, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
(Develops the approach introduced by Scanlon; see 67–72 for initial exposition.)
Barry, B. (1995b) ‘Spherical Justice and Global Injustice’, in D.
Miller and M.
Walzer (eds) Pluralism, Justice, and Equality, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 67–80.
(Discussion of Walzer, including implications for international justice.)
Beitz, C. (1979) Political Theory and International Relations, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, part III, 125–176.
(Contains an argument for the global application of Rawls’ ‘difference principle’, which prescribes making the worst-off group as well off as possible.)
Brown, C. (1992) International Relations Theory: New Normative Approaches, Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
(A lucid explanation of the ‘liberal versus communitarian’ theme in relation to international normative issues; good discussion of Kant and Hegel.)
Brown, C. (1994) Political Restructuring in Europe: Ethical Perspectives, London: Routledge.
(Part II, pp. 69–184, contains a useful and accessible cosmopolitan/anti-cosmopolitan debate, with contributions by O. O’Neill, T.W. Pogge, C.R. Beitz, D. Miller and C. Brown.)
Hayek, F.A. (1976) The Mirage of Social Justice, vol. II, Law, Legislation and Liberty, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
(Referred to at the beginning of the entry.)
Hobbes, T. (1651) Leviathan, ed.
Tuck, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991, ch. 13.
(Justice in the ‘state of nature’, referred to in §2.)
Honderich, T. (1994) Hierarchic Democracy and the Necessity of Civil Disobedience, London: South Place Ethical Society.
(The 69th Conway Memorial Lecture, this argues that the scale of inequality within and between countries demands civil disobedience and would justify violence if there were any prospect of its succeeding.)
Nagel, T. (1991) Equality and Partiality, New York: Oxford University Press, ch. 15, 169–179.
O’Neill, O. (1986) Faces of Hunger: An Essay on Poverty, Development and Justice. London: George Allen & Unwin.
(A Kantian argument for the redistribution of material resources.)
Pogge, T.W. (1989) Realizing Rawls, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, part III, 211–280.
(Discussion of possible international application of Rawls’ principles.)
Rawls, J. B. (1971) A Theory of Justice, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, ch. 3, 118–192.
(Sets out the idea of an ‘original position’ mentioned in §3.)
Rogers, P. (1995) ‘Security Means More Now Than Defence’. Parliamentary Brief 3, no. 5: 30–31.
(Makes the point about ‘suitcase bombs’ and their implications for the security of rich countries in line with the end of §4.)
Scanlon, T.M. (1982) ‘Contractualism and Utilitarianism’, in A.
Sen and B.
Williams (eds) Utilitarianism and Beyond. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 103–128.
Shue, H. (1995) ‘Avoidable Necessity: Global Warming, International Fairness and Alternative Energy’, in I.
Shapiro and J.W.
Theory and Practice, NOMOS XXXVII. New York: New York University Press, 239–264.
(To avoid potentially catastrophic global warming, sharp reductions in the emission of ‘greenhouse gases’ are required. What would be a fair distribution of the burden internationally, and how does ‘political feasibility’ enter in to it?)
Singer, P. (1972) ‘Famine, Affluence and Morality’, Philosophy and Public Affairs
1 (3): 229–243.
(Famous article making a strong case on utilitarian premises for large-scale global redistribution.)
UNICEF (1992) The State of the World’s Children, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(New editions each year; this one includes the estimate of global military expenditures in relation to the national incomes of poor countries given in §2.)
Walzer, M. (1977) Spheres of Justice: A Defense of Pluralism and Equality. New York: Basic Books; Oxford: Blackwell.
(This contains the theory of distributive justice associated with Walzer and discussed in §2.)