mid 4th century
) Nichomachean Ethics, trans. D.
Ross, revised J.L.
Ackrill and J.O.
Urmson, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980.
(Famous discussion of ethics. Book V contains an extended analysis of justice including its division into distributive and rectificatory.)
Barry, B. (1995) Justice as Impartiality, vol. 2, A Treatise on Social Justice, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
(Author’s work. Develops the approach introduced by Scanlon and also contains useful discussions of justice as mutual advantage and of Rawls’ theory. Referred to in § §4 and 5.)
Cicero, M.T. (c.
54–51) De Re Publica, trans. C.W.
Keyes, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press and London: Heinemann, 1928.
(Parallel Latin text and English translation. Important statement of neo-Stoic and natural law theory. Referred to in §3.)
Entrèves, A.P. (ed.) (1948) Aquinas: Selected Political Writings, Oxford: Blackwell.
(Standard English edition of Aquinas’ political theory, relevant to the natural law position discussed in §3.)
Dworkin, R. (1981) ‘What is Equality? Part 1: Equality of Welfare; Part 2: Equality of Resources’, Philosophy and Public Affairs 10 (3 and 4): 185–246, 283–345.
(Quite difficult discussion of whether equal treatment requires equality of welfare or of resources. Also contains Dworkin’s theory of justice referred to in §5.)
Gauthier, D. (1986) Morals By Agreement, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
(Modern neo-Hobbesian account of justice as mutual advantage. Referred to in §4.)
Hirsch, A. von (1990) ‘Proportionality in the Philosophy of Punishment: From "Why Punish?" to "How Much?"’, Criminal Law Forum 1 (Winter): 259–90.
Hobbes, T. (1651) Leviathan, ed. R.
Tuck, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
Hume, D. (1739–40) A Treatise of Human Nature, ed. L.A.
Selby-Bigge, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978.
(Referred to in §3. See especially Book 3 Part 2 for a discussion of justice.)
Hume, D. (1748 and 1751) Enquiries Concerning Human Understanding and Concerning the Principles of Morals, ed. L.A.
Selby-Bigge, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975.
(Published originally as two works, hence the dates.)
Kymlicka, W. (1990) Contemporary Political Philosophy: An Introduction, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
(Very useful introductory work covering many of the positions dealt with here. Referred to in §5.)
Marx, K. and Engels, F. (1968) Marx/Engels: Selected Works in One Volume, London: Lawrence & Wishart.
(Contains extracts of many of Marx’s most famous tracts. For a denunciation of the whole idea of justice see the ‘Critique of the Gotha Programme’, 311–31.)
Mill, J.S. (1861) ‘Utilitarianism’, Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, vol. X, Essays on Ethics, Religion and Society, ed. J.M.
Robson, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1969.
(Discussion of utilitarianism. Chapter V contains the argument for a utilitarian theory of justice referred to in §3.)
Nagel, T. (1991) Equality and Partiality, New York: Oxford University Press.
Noddings, N. (1984) Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
(Leading feminist theorist who argues for the replacing of the ethic of justice with an ethic of care.)
Nozick, R. (1974) Anarchy, State, And Utopia, New York: Basic Books.
380–367) Republic, trans. R.
Waterfield, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.
(Classic discussion of justice. Book 1 is referred to in §2.)
Rawls, J.B. (1971) A Theory of Justice, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Rawls, J.B. (1993) Political Liberalism, New York: Columbia University Press.
(Rawls’ revised theory, referred to in §5.)
Rousseau, J.-J. (1755) A Discourse on Inequality, trans. M.
Cranston, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1984.
Sandel, M.J. (1982) Liberalism and the Limits of Justice, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(A communitarian critique of Rawls and of the centrality of justice.)
Scanlon, T.M. (1982) ‘Contractualism and Utilitarianism’, in A.
Sen and B.
Williams (eds) Utilitarianism and Beyond, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 103–28.
Scanlon, T.M. (1988) ‘The Significance of Choice’, in S.M.
McMurrin (ed.) The Tanner Lectures on Human Values, vol. 8, Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah Press, 151–216.
Waldron, J. (1987) Nonsense on Stilts, London: Methuen.
(Reprints some attacks on rights and contains a valuable discussion of these critiques by Waldron.)
Walzer, M. (1983) Spheres of Justice: A Defence of Pluralism and Equality, New York: Basic Books; London and Oxford: Blackwell.