DOI: 10.4324/9780415249126-S035-1
Version: v1,  Published online: 1998
Retrieved April 21, 2021, from

References and further reading

  • Arblaster, A. (1984) The Rise and Decline of Western Liberalism, Oxford: Blackwell.

    (A critique of liberal political thought from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries.)

  • Bentham, J. (1789) An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, eds J.H. Burns and H.L.A. Hart, London: Athlone Press, 1970.

    (Classic statement of utilitarian morality.)

  • Berlin, I. (1969) Four Essays on Liberty, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 118–172.

    (Develops the distinction between negative and positive freedom, discussed in §3.)

  • Bramstead, E.K. and Melhuish, K.J. (1978) Western Liberalism: A History in Documents from Locke to Croce, London: Longman.

    (A comprehensive collection of statements by liberal politicians and statesmen in the European tradition, as well as liberal political philosophers, together with a commentary by the editors.)

  • Dworkin, R. (1977) Taking Rights Seriously, London: Duckworth.

    (A theory of law and political morality centred on the idea that individual rights sometimes ’trump’ utilitarian justifications.)

  • Dworkin, R. (1978) ‘Liberalism’, in S. Hampshire (ed.) Public and Private Morality, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (An argument that moral equality lies at the heart of liberalism.)

  • Freeden, M. (1978) The New Liberalism; An Ideology of Social Reform, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    (A useful discussion of ’the new liberalism’ referred to in §1.)

  • Green, T.H. (1886) Lectures on the Principles of Political Obligation, ed. B. Bosanquet, London: Longman, 1941.

    (An influential work combining liberal and Hegelian themes.)

  • Hayek, F.A. (1960) The Constitution of Liberty, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

    (A statement of the connection between liberty and the rule of law, and a critique of the modern welfare state.)

  • Hobbes, T. (1651) Leviathan, ed. R. Tuck, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

    (Classic statement of liberal premises of economic individualism and the war of all against all, leading to the contractual institution of an absolute sovereign.)

  • Hobhouse, L.T. (1964) Liberalism, New York: Oxford University Press.

    (An example of ’the new liberalism’ referred to in §1.)

  • Holmes, S. (1993) The Anatomy of Antiliberalism, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    (A vigorous defence of liberal political theory and source of some of the arguments about economic liberalism in §4.)

  • Hume, D. (1739) A Treatise of Human Nature, ed. L.A. Selby-Bigge, rev. P.H. Nidditch, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978, Book III.

    (A classic account of the emergence of property and justice.)

  • Kant, I. (1991) Political Writings, ed. H. Reiss, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 73–87 and 131–164.

    (Various writings in this volume insist both on the hypothetical nature of social contract reasoning, and – within the contract model – on the duty of individuals to enter and remain in political society with those with whom they find themselves disagreeing about justice.)

  • Locke, J. (1689) A Letter Concerning Toleration, ed. J. Horton and S. Mendus, London: Routledge, 1991.

    (Referred to in the discussion of economic versus spiritual versions of liberalism in §4.)

  • Locke, J. (1690) Two Treatises of Government, ed. R. Tuck, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

    (The paradigmatic statement of liberal contract theory.)

  • Manning, D. (1976) Liberalism, London: Dent.

    (A brief overview of liberal political philosophy.)

  • Mill, J.S. (1859) On Liberty, ed. C.V. Shields, Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1956.

    (A defence of individuality and freedom of thought and discussion, regarded by many as the most direct statement of liberal principle.)

  • Mill, J.S. (1868) ’The Subjection of Women’, in J. Mill and H. Taylor, Essays on Sex Equality, ed. A. Rossi, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1970.

    (The first sustained statement of gender equality by a philosopher in the classic liberal tradition.)

  • Nozick, R. (1974) Anarchy, State and Utopia, Oxford: Blackwell.

    (A vigorous modern defence of private property and the minimal state, in the tradition of John Locke.)

  • Rawls, J. (1971) A Theory of Justice, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    (Perhaps the most famous construction of liberal theory in modern times, using the idea of a hypothetical contract to explore issues of justice and fairness.)

  • Rawls, J. (1993) Political Liberalism, New York: Columbia University Press.

    (A defence of the claim that liberal principles of justice must command support among a wide variety of ethical and philosophical conceptions in a modern pluralist society.)

  • Raz, J. (1986) The Morality of Freedom, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 165–216 and 369–430.

    (An exploration of the connection between autonomy and perfectionism, mentioned in §4.)

  • Rousseau, J.-J. (1762) The Social Contract and Discourses, trans. G.D.H. Cole, London: Dent, 1955.

    (A version of contractarian theory that teeters on the brink between liberal and non-liberal political thought.)

  • Voltaire, F.-M.A. de (1734) Letters on England, trans. L. Tancock, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1980.

  • Waldron, J. (1987) ‘Theoretical Foundations of Liberalism’, Philosophical Quarterly 37: 127–150.

    (A discussion of the difficulty of defining ’liberalism’ and of the connection between liberalism and Enlightenment thought, mentioned at the end of §3.)

  • Wootton, D. (1986) Divine Right and Democracy: An Anthology of Political Writing in Stuart England, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 285–317.

    (Includes a transcript of the Putney Debates of 1647 in which Colonel Rainsborough gave voice to the principle of liberal equality, discussed in §3.)

Citing this article:
Waldron, Jeremy. Bibliography. Liberalism, 1998, doi:10.4324/9780415249126-S035-1. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Taylor and Francis,
Copyright © 1998-2021 Routledge.

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