Arblaster, A. (1984) The Rise and Decline of Western Liberalism, Oxford: Blackwell.
(A critique of liberal political thought from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries.)
Bentham, J. (1789) An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, eds
Burns and H.L.A.
Hart, London: Athlone Press, 1970.
(Classic statement of utilitarian morality.)
Berlin, I. (1969) Four Essays on Liberty, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 118–172.
(Develops the distinction between negative and positive freedom, discussed in §3.)
Bramstead, E.K. and Melhuish, K.J. (1978) Western Liberalism: A History in Documents from Locke to Croce, London: Longman.
(A comprehensive collection of statements by liberal politicians and statesmen in the European tradition, as well as liberal political philosophers, together with a commentary by the editors.)
Dworkin, R. (1977) Taking Rights Seriously, London: Duckworth.
(A theory of law and political morality centred on the idea that individual rights sometimes ’trump’ utilitarian justifications.)
Dworkin, R. (1978) ‘Liberalism’, in S.
Hampshire (ed.) Public and Private Morality, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(An argument that moral equality lies at the heart of liberalism.)
Freeden, M. (1978) The New Liberalism; An Ideology of Social Reform, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(A useful discussion of ’the new liberalism’ referred to in §1.)
Green, T.H. (1886) Lectures on the Principles of Political Obligation, ed.
Bosanquet, London: Longman, 1941.
(An influential work combining liberal and Hegelian themes.)
Hayek, F.A. (1960) The Constitution of Liberty, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
(A statement of the connection between liberty and the rule of law, and a critique of the modern welfare state.)
Hobbes, T. (1651) Leviathan, ed.
Tuck, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
(Classic statement of liberal premises of economic individualism and the war of all against all, leading to the contractual institution of an absolute sovereign.)
Hobhouse, L.T. (1964) Liberalism, New York: Oxford University Press.
(An example of ’the new liberalism’ referred to in §1.)
Holmes, S. (1993) The Anatomy of Antiliberalism, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
(A vigorous defence of liberal political theory and source of some of the arguments about economic liberalism in §4.)
Hume, D. (1739) A Treatise of Human Nature, ed.
Selby-Bigge, rev. P.H.
Nidditch, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978, Book III.
(A classic account of the emergence of property and justice.)
Kant, I. (1991) Political Writings, ed.
Reiss, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 73–87 and 131–164.
(Various writings in this volume insist both on the hypothetical nature of social contract reasoning, and – within the contract model – on the duty of individuals to enter and remain in political society with those with whom they find themselves disagreeing about justice.)
Locke, J. (1689) A Letter Concerning Toleration, ed.
Horton and S.
Mendus, London: Routledge, 1991.
(Referred to in the discussion of economic versus spiritual versions of liberalism in §4.)
Locke, J. (1690) Two Treatises of Government, ed.
Tuck, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
(The paradigmatic statement of liberal contract theory.)
Manning, D. (1976) Liberalism, London: Dent.
(A brief overview of liberal political philosophy.)
Mill, J.S. (1859) On Liberty, ed.
Shields, Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1956.
(A defence of individuality and freedom of thought and discussion, regarded by many as the most direct statement of liberal principle.)
Mill, J.S. (1868) ’The Subjection of Women’, in J. Mill and H. Taylor, Essays on Sex Equality, ed.
Rossi, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1970.
(The first sustained statement of gender equality by a philosopher in the classic liberal tradition.)
Nozick, R. (1974) Anarchy, State and Utopia, Oxford: Blackwell.
(A vigorous modern defence of private property and the minimal state, in the tradition of John Locke.)
Rawls, J. (1971) A Theory of Justice, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(Perhaps the most famous construction of liberal theory in modern times, using the idea of a hypothetical contract to explore issues of justice and fairness.)
Rawls, J. (1993) Political Liberalism, New York: Columbia University Press.
(A defence of the claim that liberal principles of justice must command support among a wide variety of ethical and philosophical conceptions in a modern pluralist society.)
Raz, J. (1986) The Morality of Freedom, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 165–216 and 369–430.
(An exploration of the connection between autonomy and perfectionism, mentioned in §4.)
Rousseau, J.-J. (1762) The Social Contract and Discourses, trans.
Cole, London: Dent, 1955.
(A version of contractarian theory that teeters on the brink between liberal and non-liberal political thought.)
Voltaire, F.-M.A. de (1734) Letters on England, trans.
Tancock, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1980.
Waldron, J. (1987) ‘Theoretical Foundations of Liberalism’, Philosophical Quarterly
(A discussion of the difficulty of defining ’liberalism’ and of the connection between liberalism and Enlightenment thought, mentioned at the end of §3.)
Wootton, D. (1986) Divine Right and Democracy: An Anthology of Political Writing in Stuart England, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 285–317.
(Includes a transcript of the Putney Debates of 1647 in which Colonel Rainsborough gave voice to the principle of liberal equality, discussed in §3.)