Acton, Lord (1907) ‘Nationality’, in J.N.
Figgis (ed.) The History of Freedom and Other Essays, London: Macmillan.
(A defence of multinational states from a liberal perspective.)
Anderson, B. (1990) Imagined Communities, London: Verso, revised edn.
(Wide-ranging study of national identities, emphasizing the part played by mass media in their creation and dissemination.)
Beitz, C. (1983) ‘Cosmopolitan Ideals and National Sentiment’, Journal of Philosophy, 80 (10): 591–600.
(Careful exploration of the question whether universalist reasons can be given for acknowledging special obligations to compatriots.)
Beran, H. (1984) ‘A Liberal Theory of Secession’, Political Studies
32 (1): 21–31.
(Appeals to the principle of consent to defend a universal right of secession.)
Berlin, I. (1981) ‘Nationalism: Past Neglect and Present Power’, in H.
Hardy (ed.) Against the Current, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(An interpretation of nineteenth-century nationalism, and an attempt to explain the continuing appeal of nationalist ideas.)
Buchanan, A. (1981) Secession, Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
(Comprehensive critical assessment of liberal arguments for and against secession.)
Fichte, J.G. (1922) Addresses to the German Nation, Chicago, IL: Open Court.
(The main statement of Fichte’s German nationalism and appeal for a national scheme of education.)
Gellner, E. (1983) Nations and Nationalism, Oxford: Blackwell.
(An interpretation of the rise of nationalism, hinging upon the need for a common high culture in modern industrial societies.)
Greenfeld, L. (1992) Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
(A comparative study of the evolution of nationalist ideas in Britain, France, Germany, Russia and the USA.)
Herder, J.G. (1969) Herder on Social and Political Culture, ed.
Barnard, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(An anthology of texts covering Herder’s explanation of the cultural diversity of humankind and his exploration of the links between national cultures and political communities.)
Kamenka, E. (1976) ‘Political Nationalism - The Evolution of the Idea’, in Nationalism: The Nature and Evolution of an Idea, London: Edward Arnold.
(Explores the origins of nationalism, stressing its connection with the idea of popular sovereignty.)
Kedourie, E. (1966) Nationalism, London: Hutchinson.
(Critical study of nationalism by a classical liberal.)
Kohn, H. (1944) The Idea of Nationalism, New York: Macmillan.
(A classic study of the development of nationalist ideas, beginning with ancient Israel.)
MacIntyre, A. (1984) ‘Is Patriotism a Virtue?’, in R.
Beiner (ed.) Theorising Citizenship, New York: State University of New York Press, 1995.
(Critique of contemporary ethical theories in terms of their incapacity to understand patriotism as a virtue.)
Margalit, A. and Raz, J. (1990) ‘National Self-determination’, Journal of Philosophy
87 (9): 439–461.
(Argues for a right to self-determination to protect the interests that people have as members of ‘encompassing groups’.)
Mill, J.S. (1861) Considerations on Representative Government, London: Dent, 1971.
(Chapter 16 contains Mill’s argument that for representative government to work successfully, state boundaries should coincide, if possible, with national boundaries.)
Miller, D. (1995) On Nationality, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
(Sympathetic discussion of nationalist ideas, exploring in greater depth the issues addressed in this entry.)
Nathanson, S. (1993) Patriotism, Morality and Peace, Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
(An attempt to separate defensible ‘moderate’ patriotism from indefensible ‘extreme’ patriotism.)
Renan, E. (1939) ‘What is a Nation?’, in A.
Zimmern (ed.) Modern Political Doctrines, London: Oxford University Press.
(Much-cited essay, critical of objective definitions of nationality.)
Rousseau, J.-J. (1770–1) The Government of Poland, trans.
Kendall, Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1972.
(Rousseau’s most explicit account of how and why citizens must be imbued with national loyalty.)
Scruton, R. (1990) ‘In Defence of the Nation’, in The Philosopher on Dover Beach, Manchester: Carcanet.
(A conservative defence of the nation as an object of loyalty.)
Tamir, Y. (1993) Liberal Nationalism, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
(An attempt to show that liberalism and nationalism can be reconciled with one another.)
Walzer, M. (1990) ‘Nation and Universe’, in G.B.
Petersen (ed.) The Tanner Lectures on Human Values, Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah Press, vol. 11.
(Separates forms of nationalism which proclaim the superiority of a particular culture from those that extend the same recognition to all.)