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DOI: 10.4324/9780415249126-A074-1
Version: v1,  Published online: 1998
Retrieved April 12, 2024, from

Article Summary

Neo-Pythagoreanism is a term used by modern scholars to refer to the revival of Pythagorean philosophy and way of life in the first century bc. It coincides with the redevelopment of Platonic thought known as Middle Platonism. Neo-Pythagoreans elaborated a mathematical metaphysics in which the highest level of being was occupied by a transcendent principle, equated with ‘the One’ or ‘the Monad’ and regarded as the source of all reality. Neo-Pythagorean anthropology reaffirmed the ancient Pythagorean belief in the immortality of the soul. Although Neo-Pythagoreanism is often indistinguishable from Middle Platonism, it is characterized by a tendency to see Pythagoras as the father of all true philosophers, including Plato. In the third century ad Neo-Pythagoreanism was absorbed into Neoplatonism.

Citing this article:
Schibli, Hermann S.. Neo-Pythagoreanism, 1998, doi:10.4324/9780415249126-A074-1. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Taylor and Francis,
Copyright © 1998-2024 Routledge.

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