DOI: 10.4324/9780415249126-K057-1
Version: v1,  Published online: 1998
Retrieved September 30, 2023, from

References and further reading

  • Berkeley, G. (1710, 1713) A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge and Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous, La Salle, IL: Open Court, 1986.

    (The basic texts for Berkeley’s ‘immaterialism’.)

  • Creery, W.E. (1991) George Berkeley: Critical Assessments, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

    (Important collection of recent discussions of Berkeley’s philosophy.)

  • Fakhry, M. (1958) Islamic Occasionalism and its Critique by Averroes and Aquinas, London: Allen & Unwin.

    (Sets out al-Ghazali’s occasionalism in its historical context, and develops the Thomistic answer to occasionalism.)

  • Freddoso, A.J. (1988) ‘Medieval Aristotelianism and the Case against Secondary Causation in Nature’, in T.V. Morris (ed.) Divine and Human Action: Essays in the Metaphysics of Theism, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 74–118.

    (A penetrating study of the metaphysical aspects of occasionalism.)

  • al-Ghazali (1095) al-Ghazali’s Tahafut al-falasifah: The Incoherence of the Philosophers, trans. S.A. Kamali, Lahore: Pakistan Philosophical Congress, 1963.

    (Problem 17 is the basic source for al-Ghazali’s occasionalism.)

  • McCann, H.J. and Kvanvig, J.L. (1991) ‘The Occasionalist Proselytizer: A Modified Catechism’, Philosophical Perspectives 5: 587–615.

    (A contemporary defence of occasionalism; argues that occasionalism does not deprive laws of nature of their explanatory force.)

  • Malebranche, N. (1688) Dialogues on Metaphysics and On Religion, trans. M. Ginsberg, London: Allen & Unwin, 1923.

    (An excellent introduction to Malebranche’s occasionalism.)

  • Malebranche, N. (1674–5) The Search after Truth and Elucidations of the Search after Truth, trans. T.M. Lennon and P.J. Olscamp, Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 1980.

    (The basic source for the philosophy of Malebranche.)

  • Nadler, S. (1993) Causation in Early Modern Philosophy: Cartesianism, Occasionalism, and Preestablished Harmony, University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.

    (Several of the articles discuss early modern occasionalism.)

Citing this article:
Hasker, William. Bibliography. Occasionalism, 1998, doi:10.4324/9780415249126-K057-1. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Taylor and Francis,
Copyright © 1998-2023 Routledge.

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