DOI: 10.4324/9780415249126-N079-1
Version: v1,  Published online: 1998
Retrieved July 14, 2024, from

References and further reading

  • Hartshorne, C. (1950) ‘Panpsychism’ in V. Ferm (ed.) A History of Philosophical Systems, New York: Philosophical Library, 442–453.

    (A clear statement of Hartshorne’s panpsychism.)

  • Hartshorne, C. (1962) The Logic of Perfection, La Salle, IL: Open Court.

    (Chapters 7 and 8 offer a statement of Hartshorne’s process philosophy, including his panpsychism – what he prefers to call his ‘psychicalism’.)

  • James, W. (1890) ‘The Mind-Stuff Theory’, in The Principles of Psychology, vol. 1, ch. 4, London: Macmillan; Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981.

    (Critical examination of the view that animal and human consciousness is a totality composed of little bits of sentience pervasive in the natural world.)

  • James, W. (1911) ‘Novelty and Causation: The Perceptual View’, in Some Problems of Philosophy, ch. 13, New York: Longmans, Green & Co.

    (This appears as ch. 9 in the scholarly Harvard University Press edition of 1979. A late work of James in which he seems finally to adopt the panpsychism with which he had toyed throughout his life.)

  • Nagel, T. (1974) ‘Panpsychism’, Philosophical Review 53 (October); repr. in Mortal Questions, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

    (An influential philosopher who sees some point in panpsychism, even if he does not endorse it.)

  • Paulsen, F. (1892) Introduction to Philosophy, 2nd US edn, trans. F. Thilly, intro. W. James, New York: Holt & Company, 1930.

    (A fascinating discussion of a range of philosophical problems, many of which the author thinks are best solved by the view that the inner essence of what appears to us as physical is pervasively mental.)

  • Royce, J. (1892) The Spirit of Modern Philosophy, New York: W.S. Norton & Co., 1967.

    (In chapter 12 Royce distinguishes between the world of description and the world of acquaintance. The second, which is mental, is the inner essence of the former, which is the world as viewed by science.)

  • Sprigge, T.L.S. (1983) The Vindication of Absolute Idealism, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

    (The first half of this book provides a defence of panpsychism.)

  • Whitehead, A.N. (1929) Process and Reality, corrected edn, New York: Free Press, 1978.

    (The main statement of Whitehead’s process philosophy which many, but not all readers, understand as committed to panpsychism.)

Citing this article:
Sprigge, T.L.S.. Bibliography. Panpsychism, 1998, doi:10.4324/9780415249126-N079-1. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Taylor and Francis,
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