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Substance

DOI
10.4324/9780415249126-N056-1
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DOI: 10.4324/9780415249126-N056-1
Version: v1,  Published online: 1998
Retrieved September 26, 2020, from https://www.rep.routledge.com/articles/thematic/substance/v-1

References and further reading

  • Aristotle (c. mid 4th century) Categories, in The Complete Works of Aristotle, (Revised Oxford Translation), ed. J. Barnes, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, vol. 1, 1984.

    (Sets out the logical doctrine of substance.)

  • Aristotle (c. mid 4th century) Metaphysics, in The Complete Works of Aristotle, (Revised Oxford Translation), vol. 2, ed. J. Barnes, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984.

    (Explores ways in which substance is fundamental. Book I (A) considers earlier views, and VII (Z) argues that unitary bodies, that is individual living things, are substances.)

  • Ayer, A.J. (1936) Language, Truth and Logic, London: Victor Gollancz.

    (Chapter 1, ’The Elimination of Metaphysics’, argues that theories of substance are confusions due to language.)

  • Ayers, M.R. (1991) Locke, London: Routledge.

    (Volume 1, Part 3 contains a theory of integrated perception of objects. Volume 2, Part 1 finds insights in Locke’s and other theories of substance; Part 3 expounds a realist theory of identity.)

  • Descartes, R. (1641) Meditations on First Philosophy, in The Philosophical Writings of Descartes vol. 2, trans. J. Cottingham, R. Stoothoff and D. Murdoch, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

    (Classic argument for mind–body dualism.)

  • Descartes, R. (1644) Principles of Philosophy, Part 1, §§ 51–65, in The Philosophical Writings of Descartes, vol. 1, trans. J. Cottingham, R. Stoothoff and D. Murdoch, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

    (Descartes’ account of substances and their relation to their principle attributes and modes.)

  • Epicurus (c.305) Letter to Herodotus (from Diogenes Laertius, Lives of the Philosophers) in Epicurus: The Extant Remains, ed. C. Bailey, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1926.

    (Argues that bodies, in particular atoms, are substances, and that accidents are not distinct entities.)

  • Hobbes, T. (1651) Leviathan, ed. R. Tuck, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

    (Chapter 34 sets out Hobbes’ materialist conception of substance and accident.)

  • Hume, D. (1739–40) A Treatise of Human Nature, ed. L.A. Selby Bigge, revised P.H. Nidditch, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.

    (Book I, part 1, §7; part 4, §§ 3 and 5 criticize the traditional concept of substance, and the substance-mode relation.)

  • Kant, I. (1781) Critique of Pure Reason, trans. N. Kemp Smith, London: Macmillan, 1963.

    (Argues that substance is an ineluctable category of judgment, imposed by the mind on what is given to sensibility.)

  • Kripke, S.A. (1980) Naming and Necessity, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980.

    (Rejects accounts of proper names which assign them sense or treat them as abbreviated descriptions, and extends a causal theory of meaning from this to other areas of language; revolutionary.)

  • Leibniz, G.W. (1686) Discourse on Metaphysics, in Philosophical Essays, trans. and ed. R. Ariew and D. Garber, Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company, 1989.

    (Expounds a notion of individual substances, whose concepts contain all their predicates.)

  • Leibniz, G.W. (1714) The Principles of Philosophy, or, the Monadology, in Philosophical Essays, trans. and ed. R. Ariew and D. Garber, Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company, 1989.

    (Identifies ’monads’, simple immaterial individuals, as the only substances.)

  • Locke, J. (1689) Essay concerning Human Understanding, ed. P.H. Nidditch, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975.

    (See Book II, chapter 23, Book III, chapter 6, and following, for an interpretation of the idea of substance as place-marker for unknown essences or natures.)

  • Plato (c. 380–367) The Republic, in The Dialogues of Plato, ed. B. Jowett, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1892.

    (Books V–VIII give an account of what is.)

  • Putnam, H. (1975) Mind, Language and Reality, in Philosophical Papers, vol. 2, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (Contains a series of papers arguing that the meaning of natural-kind names lies in their reference to reality, not in definitions ’in the head’; revolutionary.)

  • Quine, W.V. (1953) ‘On what there is’, in From a Logical Point of View, New York: Harper & Row.

    (An early statement of Quine’s view that ontological commitment is expressed through qualification.)

  • Quine, W.V. (1960) Word and Object, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

    (Classic exposition of contemporary pragmatist conceptualism, arguing that ontology is relative to language or conceptual scheme.)

  • Rorty, R. (1980) Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature, Oxford: Blackwell.

    (An extreme version of relativistic conceptualism, with sympathetic interpretations of many modern exponents; widely read and influential.)

  • Spinoza, B. de (1677) Ethics, in The Collected Works of Spinoza, vol. 1, ed. E. Curley, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1985.

    (Makes thought and extension attributes of the one substance, of which all individual minds and bodies are modes.)

  • Strawson, P.F. (1958) Individuals, London: Methuen.

    (Argues that objective experience would be impossible without material things such as are basic objects of reference in natural language.)

  • Suárez, F. (1597) Metaphysical Disputations, Book VII, trans. C. Vollert, On the Various Kinds of Distinction, Milwaukee, WI: Marquette University Press, 1947.

    (Holds that accidents are ’modally distinct’ and, although naturally dependent, in principle separable from substances in which they inhere.)

  • Wiggins, D. (1980) Sameness and Substance, Oxford: Blackwell.

    (Advances a theory of identity consonant with Kripke’s insights, which attempts to combine conceptualism and realism.)

  • William of Ockham (1322–7) Summa Logica, Part 1, trans. M.J. Loux, Ockham’s Theory of Terms, Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1974.

    (Chapters 19–62 consider which categories of abstract terms stand for really distinct particular beings. Not many do.)

  • Wittgenstein, L. (1953) Philosophical Investigations, Oxford: Blackwell.

    (Wittgenstein’s late masterpiece, identifying the source of philosophical theories in misunderstandings of language and its structures, and the source of those structures in the roles of language in life.)

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Citing this article:
Ayers, Michael. Bibliography. Substance, 1998, doi:10.4324/9780415249126-N056-1. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Taylor and Francis, https://www.rep.routledge.com/articles/thematic/substance/v-1/bibliography/substance-bib.
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