Bacon, F. (1620) Novum organum (The New Method), trans.
Urbach and J.
Gibson, La Salle, IL: Open Court, 1994, esp. book I, ch. 129.
(Argues that the goal of science is not simply knowledge but technological power.)
Baier, K. and Rescher, N. (1969) Values and the Future: The Impact of Technological Change on American Values, New York: Free Press.
(An empirical and analytic philosophical study.)
Bijker, W.E., Hughes, T.P. and Pinch, T.J. (1987) The Social Construction of Technological Systems, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
(A standard presentation of the social constructivist theory of technology.)
Borgmann, A. (1984) Technology and the Character of Contemporary Life: A Philosophical Inquiry, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
(A comprehensive ethics and politics of technology.)
Collingridge, D. (1980) The Social Control of Technology, New York: St Martin’s Press.
(Outlines the dilemma in assessing technology: by the time we know enough about a technology to want to control it, the technology has often developed so much social momentum that it is almost impossible to do so.)
Dahl, R. (1985) Controlling Nuclear Weapons: Democracy Versus Guardianship, Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.
(This contrast between two political approaches to the control of a particular technology has general implications.)
Durbin, P.T. (1992) Social Responsibility in Science, Technology, and Medicine, Bethlehem, PA: Lehigh University Press.
(On obligations of engineers and others.)
Ellul, J. (1954) La Technique ou L’Enjeu du Siècle, trans.
Wilkinson, The Technological Society, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1964.
(The classic presentation of technological determinism.)
Feenberg, A. (1991) Critical Theory of Technology, New York: Oxford University Press.
(Extends Frankfurt School Neo-Marxist critical theory to include issues of the social critical response to technology.)
Feenberg, A. (1995) Alternative Modernity: The Technical Turn in Philosophy and Social Theory, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
(Because technology is a kind of legislation it calls for democratic control, and there are alternatives to technological modernism and postmodern abdication to responsibility. This book gives concrete examples of alternative socio-cultural forms of technology.)
Foucault, M. (1988) Technologies of the Self, ed.
Gutman and P.H.
Hutton, London: Tavistock.
(Complements Ortega’s reference to “techniques of the soul”.)
Goodpaster, K. and Sayre, K. (1979) Ethics and the Problems of the 21st Century, South Bend, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
(Represents the Anglo-American analytic approach.)
Guardini, R. (1926) Letters from Lake Como: Explorations in Technology and the Human Race, trans.
Bromiley, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1994.
(A lucid presentation of one Continental attitude.)
Habermas, J. (1970) Toward a Rational Society: Student Protest, Science, and Politics, trans.
Shapiro, Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
(Translated collection of essays from German texts published in 1968 and 1969. Provides a qualified defence of modern optimism.)
Heidegger, M. (1954) ‘Die Frage nach der Technik’, in Vorträge und Aufsätze, Pfullingen: Neske; trans.
Lovitt, ‘The Question Concerning Technology’, in The Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays, New York: Harper & Row, 1977.
(Argues that technology is not just a neutral or instrumental means but a way of revealing the world that influences the whole life of all who are involved with it.)
Hottois, G. (1984) Pour une ethique dan un univers technicien, Brussels: Éditions de l’Université de Bruxelles.
(Moves the Continental approach towards specific problems.)
Illich, I. (1973) Tools for Conviviality, New York: Pantheon.
(Representative of the moral protest against determinism.)
Jasanoff, S. (1990) The Fifth Branch: Science Advisers as Policymakers, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
(Examines how science and technology are regulated in an advanced industrial state.)
Jaspers, K. (1931) Die geistige Situation der Zeit, trans.
Paul and C.
Paul, Man in the Modern Age, London: Routledge, 1933.
(Representative of the classical Continental attitude.)
Jonas, H. (1979) The Imperative of Responsibility: In Search of an Ethics for the Technological Age, trans.
Jonas and D.
Herr, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1984.
(Enlargements of human power through technology carry with them expansions of human moral responsibility.)
Marcuse, H. (1964) One-Dimensional Man: Studies in the Ideology of Advanced Industrial Society, Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
(Important Marxist presentation of technological determinism and moral protest.)
Marx, K. (1867) Das Kapital: Kritik der Politischen Ökonomie, trans.
Fernbach, Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, New York: Penguin, 3 vols, 1992, book I, ch. 13.
(Critique of technology under capitalism. Includes an analysis of technology as a new force that, along with capitalist ownership, has transformed economic life.)
Mitcham, C. (1989) Ethics and Technology: Research in Philosophy and Technology, vol. 9, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
(A collection of original papers representative of both Continental and Anglo-American discussions.)
Mitcham, C. (1994) ‘Ethics in Science, Technology, and Medicine’, in C.
Mitcham and W.F.
Williams (eds) The Reader’s Adviser, vol. 5, The Best in Science, Technology, and Medicine, New York: Bowker, 105–146.
(An extended annotated bibliography.)
Mumford, L. (1967, 1970) The Myth of the Machine, vol. 1, Technics and Human Development, vol. 2, The Pentagon of Power, New York: Harcourt Brace.
(Argues that the long historical development of power-centred modern technology has had a largely detrimental impact of human ways of life.)
Nelkin, D. (1984) Controversy: Politics of Technical Decisions, Newbury Park, CA: Sage; 3rd edn, 1992.
(Empirical case studies.)
Ortega y Gasset, José (1939) Meditación de la técnica, Buenos Aires: Escalpe; repr. in Obras Completas, vol. 5, Madrid: Revista de Occidente, 2nd edn, 1950/1; trans.
Weyl and E.
Williams, ‘Thoughts on Technology’, in C.
Mitcham and R.
Mackey (eds) Philosophy and Technology: Readings in the Philosophical Problems of Technology, New York: Free Press, 1972.
(On modernity and technology. Argues that human beings are essentially technological and that history is transformed by changes in technology.)
Ropohl, G. (1987) Technik und Ethik, Stuttgart: Reclam.
(An introduction to engineering ethics in Germany.)
Rosenberg, N. (1982) Inside the Black Box: Technology and Economics, New York: Cambridge University Press.
(On the interactions between technology and the eceonomy.)
Russell, B.H. and Pelto, P. (1972) Technology and Social Change, New York: Macmillan; 2nd edn, Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, 1987.
(A collection of anthropological studies.)
Sclove, R. (1995) Democracy and Technology, New York: Guilford Press.
(Develops nine criteria for technology that would enhance democratic control. A positive, solutions-oriented book.)
Scheler, M. (1915) Das Ressentiment im Aufbau der Moralen, trans.
Holdheim, Ressentiment, Milwaukee, WI: Marquette University Press, 1994, ch. 5.
(Discusses ‘ethos of industrialism’, suggesting that the modern world is characterized by an egalitarian resentment of aristocratic achievement that also supports technology.)
Sen, A. (1987) On Ethics and Economics, Oxford: Blackwell.
(Critical of a welfare economic analyses of technological development that ignore equity issues.)
Shrader-Frechette, K.S. (1991) Risk and Rationality: Philosophical Foundations for Populist Reforms, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
(The subjection of human beings to technological risks is morally legitimate only to the extent people have given their free and informed consent.)
Tiles, M. and Oberdiek, H. (1995) Living in a Technological Culture: Human Tools and Human Values, London: Routledge.
(Broad overview from an Anglo-American perspective.)
Unger, S.H. (1982) Controlling Technology: Ethics and the Responsible Engineer, New York: Addison Wesley; 2nd edn, 1994.
(A socially critical engineer’s view of responsibility in the technical professions.)
Westra, L. and Shader-Frechette, K. (1996) Ethics and Technology, LaJolla, CA: Jones and Bartlett.
(Useful general collection.)
Winner, L. (1986) The Whale and the Reactor: A Search for Limits in an Age of High Technology, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
(Technologies are like political constitutions in that they set up ways of life, and as such ought to be created on a democratic basis.)