Version: v1, Published online: 1998
Retrieved March 28, 2020, from https://www.rep.routledge.com/articles/biographical/epictetus-ad-c-50-c-120/v-1
Epictetus was a Greek Stoic philosopher of the late first and early second centuries ad. He developed Stoic ideas of responsibility into a doctrine of autonomy and inner freedom based on his concept of moral personality (prohairesis). Ethics and practical moral training are central to his thought, but he was also responsible for innovations in epistemology. He emphasized the need to achieve freedom from the passions and to maintain equanimity in the face of a world determined by a providential, though often inscrutable, fate. He frequently treats the Stoic Zeus as a personal deity, and his distinctive combination of personal piety and stringent rationalism (together with his pungent style) have contributed to his enduring influence.
Inwood, Brad. Epictetus (AD c.50–c.120), 1998, doi:10.4324/9780415249126-A048-1. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Taylor and Francis, https://www.rep.routledge.com/articles/biographical/epictetus-ad-c-50-c-120/v-1.
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