Wittgenstein, Ludwig Josef Johann (1889–1951)

DOI: 10.4324/9780415249126-DD072-2
Version: v2,  Published online: 2011
Retrieved March 01, 2021, from

List of works

  • Wittgenstein, L.J.J. (1922) Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, trans. C.K. Ogden and F.P. Ramsey, London: Routledge; trans. D.F. Pears and B.F. McGuinness, London: Routledge, 1961.

    (The major work of Wittgenstein’s early period and the only book published during his lifetime. The first English translation was revised and approved by Wittgenstein himself, though the later version is now standard. The German version was published in 1921 in Annalen der Naturphilosophie.)

  • Wittgenstein, L.J.J. (1953) Philosophical Investigations, ed. G.E.M. Anscombe and R. Rhees, trans. G.E.M. Anscombe, Oxford: Blackwell.

    (The most polished and worked over of all Wittgenstein’s later work; it contains the presentation of his ideas on meaning and philosophical psychology with which he was most nearly satisfied.)

  • Wittgenstein, L.J.J. (1956) Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics, ed. G.H. von Wright, R. Rhees and G.E.M. Anscombe, trans. G.E.M. Anscombe, Oxford: Blackwell, 3rd edn, 1978.

    (Selections from Wittgenstein’s notebooks and manuscripts from 1937 to 1944. The third edition contains a larger selection of material than the first edition.)

  • Wittgenstein, L.J.J. (1958) The Blue and Brown Books, Oxford: Blackwell.

    (These were dictated to his pupils in 1933–5 and are among the few works composed by Wittgenstein in English. A good way of approaching his later thought.)

  • Wittgenstein, L.J.J. (1961) Notebooks 1914–16, ed. G.H. von Wright and G.E.M. Anscombe, trans. G.E.M. Anscombe, Oxford: Blackwell.

    (Helpful for understanding the Tractatus, since it contains what is left of the preliminary writings of that period.)

  • Wittgenstein, L.J.J. (1967) Zettel, ed. G.E.M. Anscombe and G.H. von Wright, trans. G.E.M. Anscombe, Oxford: Blackwell.

    (A selection, made by Wittgenstein himself, of remarks that he wrote mainly between 1945 and 1948.)

  • Wittgenstein, L.J.J. (1969) On Certainty, ed. G.E.M. Anscombe and G.H. von Wright, trans. D. Paul and G.E.M. Anscombe, Oxford: Blackwell.

    (A collection of all the material on knowledge and certainty from the last year and a half of Wittgenstein’s life, where he treated the topics at length at several points in his notebooks.)

  • Wittgenstein, L.J.J. (1974) Philosophical Grammar, ed. R. Rhees, trans. A. Kenny, Oxford: Blackwell.

    (Written in 1931–4, this deals extensively with logic and mathematics, as well as topics such as language and meaning.)

  • Wittgenstein, L.J.J. (1975) Philosophical Remarks, ed. R. Rhees, trans. R. Hargreaves and R. White, Oxford: Blackwell.

    (Written in 1929–30 and interesting in that it shows the kinds of reflection on the Tractatus which drove Wittgenstein from his earlier to his later outlook.)

  • Wittgenstein, L.J.J. (1977a) Remarks on Colour, ed. G.E.M. Anscombe, trans. L.L. McAlister and M. Schättle, Oxford: Blackwell.

    (All the material on this topic from the writings of 1950–1, in which Wittgenstein worked on it extensively.)

  • Wittgenstein, L.J.J. (1977b) Vermischte Bemerkungen, Suhrkamp Verlag: Frankfurt am Main; trans. P. Winch, ed. G.H. von Wright and H. Nyman, Culture and Value, Oxford: Blackwell, 1980.

    (Wittgenstein’s notebooks and typescripts often contain remarks on topics which are not directly philosophical. This collection assembles all of them from 1914 to 1951.)

  • Wittgenstein, L.J.J. (1980) Remarks on the Philosophy of Psychology, vols 1 and 2, ed. G.E.M. Anscombe and G.H. von Wright, trans. G.E.M. Anscombe, Oxford: Blackwell.

    (Selections made by Wittgenstein in 1947 and 1948 from material written in 1946–8. Contains much of interest on the topics treated in Part II of the Philosophical Investigations.)

  • Wittgenstein, L.J.J. (1982; 1992) Last Writings on the Philosophy of Psychology, ed. G.E.M. Anscombe, G.H. von Wright and H. Nyman, trans. C.G. Luckhardt and M.A.E. Aue, Oxford: Blackwell, 2 vols.

    (Writings from 1948–9, from which selections were made by Wittgenstein for Part II of the Philosophical Investigations.)

  • Wittgenstein, L.J.J. (1993) Philosophical Occasions, ed. J.C. Klagge and A. Nordmann, Indianapolis, IN: Hackett.

    (Usefully anthologizes several short pieces, including the ‘Lecture on Ethics’ (1929) and ‘Remarks on Frazer’s Golden Bough’ (1931).)

References and further reading

  • Anscombe, G.E.M. (1959) An Introduction to Wittgenstein’s Tractatus , London: Hutchinson.

    (A stimulating, although in parts quite difficult, discussion of many of the central ideas of the Tractatus.)

  • Baker, G.P. and Hacker, P.M.S. (1980, 1988, 1990) An Analytical Commentary on the Philosophical Investigations, Oxford: Blackwell, 3 vols.

    (An immensely detailed commentary, informed by extensive knowledge of the Wittgenstein papers. The third volume is by P.M.S. Hacker alone.)

  • Boghossian, P. (1989) ‘The Rule-Following Considerations’, Mind 98: 507–549.

    (An overview and critical commentary on the discussion of rule-following sparked by Kripke’s work.)

  • Budd, M. (1989) Wittgenstein’s Philosophy of Psychology, London: Routledge.

    (A clear survey of Wittgenstein’s views on a variety of psychological topics.)

  • Canfield, J.V. (1986–8) The Philosophy of Wittgenstein, New York and London: Garland Publishing Company, 15 vols.

    (A useful collection of articles on all aspects of Wittgenstein’s philosophy.)

  • Carruthers, P. (1990) The Metaphysics of the Tractatus, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (Contains extensive consideration of determinacy of sense and the related topic of simple objects.)

  • Cavell, S. (1976) ‘Must We Mean What We Say’, in his collection of essays of the same title, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    (One of the most important and helpful early papers on Wittgenstein’s later philosophy.)

  • Cavell, S. (1979) The Claim of Reason, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    (Subtle and stimulating book on Wittgenstein’s later philosophy. The elaborate style takes some getting used to.)

  • Conant, J. (2000) ‘The Method of the Tractatus’, in E. Reck (ed.), From Frege to Wittgenstein: Perspectives on Early Analytic Philosophy, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    (The fullest presentation of his arguments for a resolute reading of the Tractatus.)

  • Crary, A. and Read, R. (2000) The New Wittgenstein, London: Routledge.

    (A useful collection of papers, exploring the resolute reading of the Tractatus and stressing similarities between Wittgenstein’s earlier and later thoughts.)

  • Diamond, C. (1991) ‘Throwing Away the Ladder: How to Read the Tractatus’, in her The Realistic Spirit: Wittgenstein, Philosophy and the Mind, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

    (An early and influential presentation of the resolute reading of the Tractatus.)

  • Fogelin, R.J. (1987) Wittgenstein, London: Routledge, 2nd edn.

    (A good general book, particularly helpful as an introduction to Wittgenstein’s treatment of logic and mathematics. Also contains a helpful bibliography.)

  • Hacker, P.M.S. (1986) Insight and Illusion, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2nd edn.

    (Another good general book, particularly strong on Wittgenstein’s treatment of the self.)

  • Heal, J. (1989) Fact and Meaning, Oxford: Blackwell.

    (Further discussion of the themes of §§10–13.)

  • Johnston, P. (1993) Wittgenstein: Rethinking the Inner, London: Routledge.

    (A reading of Wittgenstein’s later views on mind.)

  • Kenny, A. (1973) Wittgenstein, London: Allen Lane.

    (A good general introduction.)

  • Kripke, S. (1982) Wittgenstein on Rules and Private Language, Oxford: Blackwell.

    (An exceptionally clear and gripping exploration of the idea that the rule-following considerations lead to scepticism about meaning.)

  • McDowell, J. (1984) ‘Wittgenstein on Following a Rule’, Synthèse 58: 325–363.

    (In part a criticism of Kripke (1982), in part an interesting exposition of Wittgenstein.)

  • McGinn, M. (1989) Sense and Certainty: A Dissolution of Scepticism, Oxford: Blackwell.

    (A clear account of Wittgenstein’s views on knowledge and certainty, expanding on the points in §17 above.)

  • McGuinness, B. (1988) Wittgenstein: A Life, Young Ludwig 1889–1921, London: Duckworth.

    (Biographical study, containing much on Wittgenstein’s intellectual background which is not in Monk’s book and culminating in a chapter on the Tractatus.)

  • Monk, R. (1990) Ludwig Wittgenstein, London: Jonathan Cape.

    (A full and illuminating biography.)

  • Pears, D. (1987) The False Prison, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    (A two-volume study containing much interesting discussion of the transition period and the private language argument.)

  • Wright, C. (1980) Wittgenstein on the Foundations of Mathematics, London: Duckworth.

    (Extended exploration of the idea that Wittgenstein should be seen as an antirealist or as a conventionalist.)

Citing this article:
Heal, Jane. Bibliography. Wittgenstein, Ludwig Josef Johann (1889–1951), 2011, doi:10.4324/9780415249126-DD072-2. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Taylor and Francis,
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