Aquinas, T. (c.1259–65) Summa contra gentiles (Synopsis [of Christian Doctrine] Directed Against Unbelievers), trans.
Dominican Fathers, Chicago, IL: Benziger Brothers, 1928, III.2, c.112.
(Argues that animals are made by God for human use.)
Bentham, J. (1789) An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, New York: Hafner, 1948.
(Argues on utilitarian grounds that the suffering of animals counts equally with the suffering of human beings.)
Darwin, C. (1859) On the Origin of Species, London: John Murray; repr. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1975.
(The classic source of the theory of evolution by natural selection.)
Finsen, L. and Finsen, S. (1994) The Animal Rights Movement, New York: Twayne Publishers.
(An overall view of the movement, covering its history and the philosophical and religious arguments on which it is based.)
Frey, R.G. (1983) Rights, Killing, and Suffering: Moral Vegetarianism and Applied Ethics, Oxford: Blackwell.
(Argues that the various pro-animal arguments do not succeed.)
Gray, A. (1880) Natural Science and Religion: Two Lectures Delivered to the Theological School of Yale College, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
(Argues that we must acknowledge that animals have rights because we share common traits with them.)
Kant, I. (1780–81) Lectures on Ethics, trans.
Infield, New York: Harper & Row, 1963.
(Holds that humans have no duties to animals because animals are not self-conscious.)
Regan, T. (1983) The Case for Animal Rights, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
(Defends the view that nonhuman animals have moral rights comparable to the rights of humans. One of the most important philosophical defences of animals.)
Regan, T. and Singer, P. (1989) Animal Rights and Human Obligations, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2nd edn.
(A collection of readings on all sides of the issue. Includes a selection from Aristotle, which illustrates his view that because humans have a privileged moral status, on the grounds that they alone are rational, animals exist to provide food and other ‘aids in life’ for humans.)
Singer, P. (1975) Animal Liberation, New York: New York Review Books; 2nd edn, 1990.
(A clear and well-written book, arguing that the same moral principles that govern how people should be treated also apply to animals.)