Animals and ethics

DOI: 10.4324/9780415249126-L004-1
Version: v1,  Published online: 1998
Retrieved May 29, 2023, from

References and further reading

  • Aquinas, T. (c.1259–65) Summa contra gentiles (Synopsis [of Christian Doctrine] Directed Against Unbelievers), trans. English Dominican Fathers, Chicago, IL: Benziger Brothers, 1928, III.2, c.112.

    (Argues that animals are made by God for human use.)

  • Bentham, J. (1789) An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, New York: Hafner, 1948.

    (Argues on utilitarian grounds that the suffering of animals counts equally with the suffering of human beings.)

  • Darwin, C. (1859) On the Origin of Species, London: John Murray; repr. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1975.

    (The classic source of the theory of evolution by natural selection.)

  • Finsen, L. and Finsen, S. (1994) The Animal Rights Movement, New York: Twayne Publishers.

    (An overall view of the movement, covering its history and the philosophical and religious arguments on which it is based.)

  • Frey, R.G. (1983) Rights, Killing, and Suffering: Moral Vegetarianism and Applied Ethics, Oxford: Blackwell.

    (Argues that the various pro-animal arguments do not succeed.)

  • Gray, A. (1880) Natural Science and Religion: Two Lectures Delivered to the Theological School of Yale College, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.

    (Argues that we must acknowledge that animals have rights because we share common traits with them.)

  • Kant, I. (1780–81) Lectures on Ethics, trans. L. Infield, New York: Harper & Row, 1963.

    (Holds that humans have no duties to animals because animals are not self-conscious.)

  • Regan, T. (1983) The Case for Animal Rights, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

    (Defends the view that nonhuman animals have moral rights comparable to the rights of humans. One of the most important philosophical defences of animals.)

  • Regan, T. and Singer, P. (1989) Animal Rights and Human Obligations, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2nd edn.

    (A collection of readings on all sides of the issue. Includes a selection from Aristotle, which illustrates his view that because humans have a privileged moral status, on the grounds that they alone are rational, animals exist to provide food and other ‘aids in life’ for humans.)

  • Singer, P. (1975) Animal Liberation, New York: New York Review Books; 2nd edn, 1990.

    (A clear and well-written book, arguing that the same moral principles that govern how people should be treated also apply to animals.)

Citing this article:
Rachels, James. Bibliography. Animals and ethics, 1998, doi:10.4324/9780415249126-L004-1. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Taylor and Francis,
Copyright © 1998-2023 Routledge.

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