Virtues and vices

DOI: 10.4324/9780415249126-L112-1
Version: v1,  Published online: 1998
Retrieved June 01, 2020, from

References and further reading

  • Aristotle (c. mid 4th century) Nicomachean Ethics, trans. W.D. Ross, revised by J. Urmson, ed. and revised by J. Barnes in The Complete Works of Aristotle, vol. 2, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984.

    (Generally accepted as the most considered statement of his position. For secondary works, see Broadie (1991) and Sherman (1989) below.)

  • Baier, A.C. (1991) A Progress of Sentiments: reflections on Hume’s Treatise, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    (A thoughtful consideration of Hume’s moral philosophy, useful on the relations between virtue and sentiment.)

  • Broadie, S. (1991) Ethics with Aristotle, New York: Oxford University Press.

    (A notably subtle and philosophically helpful commentary.)

  • Crisp, R. and Slote, M. (1997) Virtue Ethics, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    (A helpful collection of papers.)

  • Flanagan, O. (1991) Varieties of Moral Personality: Ethics and Psychological Realism, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    (Relates the moral psychology of various ethical positions to empirical material.)

  • French, P.A., Uehling, T.E. and Wettstein, H.K. (1988) Ethical Theory: Character and Virtue, Midwest Studies in Philosophy, vol. 13, Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.

    (A useful collection of papers on contemporary virtue theory.)

  • Hume, D. (1751) An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals, in Enquiries Concerning Human Understanding and Concerning the Principles of Morals, ed. L.A. Selby-Bigge, revised by P.H. Nidditch, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 3rd edn, 1975.

    (A more compact, though also less searching, account than book III of A Treatise on Human Nature (1739–40). Appendix IV discusses the idea of ‘moral’ virtue.)

  • MacIntyre, A. (1981) After Virtue, Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.

    (An influential, negative, assessment of modern moral ideas in contrast to Aristotelian and medieval virtue theory.)

  • Mandeville, B. (1714) The Fable of the Bees: or, Private Vices, Publick Benefits, ed. F.B. Kaye, Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund, 1988.

    (The work was first intended as a political satire, but has been seen as offering a serious case for private vices turned into public benefits.)

  • Nietzsche, F. (1886) Jenseits von Gut und Böse, trans. R.J. Hollingdale, Beyond Good and Evil, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1990.

    (Considers, among many other things, the ‘faith in opposing values’.)

  • Nietzsche, F. (1887) Zur Genealogie der Moral, trans. C. Diethe, On the Genealogy of Morality, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

    (A powerfully influential study, phenomenological rather than historical, of moral values – including, importantly, the passion for truthfulness which motivates the work itself.)

  • Plato (c.395–387) Gorgias, trans. D.J. Zeyl, Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company, 1987.

    (His most dramatic and radical enquiry into scepticism about the virtues.)

  • Plato (c.380–367) Republic, trans. G.M.A. Grube, revised by C.D.C. Reeve, Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company, 1992.

    (His fullest account, political as well as ethical, of the nature and value of the virtues.)

  • Sherman, N. (1989) The Fabric of Character: Aristotle’s Theory of Virtue, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

    (A useful philosophical and interpretative discussion.)

  • Westberg, D. (1994) Right Practical Reason, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

    (A discussion of practical reason and virtue in Aquinas.)

Citing this article:
Williams, Bernard. Bibliography. Virtues and vices, 1998, doi:10.4324/9780415249126-L112-1. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Taylor and Francis,
Copyright © 1998-2020 Routledge.

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