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Search Results 1 - 25 of 1,040. Results contain 4,780 matches


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Biographical

Abelard, Peter (1079–1142)

Among the many scholars who promoted the revival of learning in western Europe in the early twelfth century, Abelard stands out as a consummate logician, a formidable polemicist ...

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Ailly, Pierre d’ (1350–1420)

D’Ailly was a prolific writer on a number of subjects. His best known philosophical works concentrate on logic and on faith and reason, with strong influences from Ockham ...

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Albert of Saxony (c.1316–90)

Albert of Saxony, active in the middle and late fourteenth century, taught at the University of Paris and was later instrumental in founding the University of Vienna. He ...

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Albert the Great (1200–80)

Albert the Great was the first scholastic interpreter of Aristotle’s work in its entirety, as well as being a theologian and preacher. He left an encyclopedic body of ...

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Alexander of Hales (c.1185–1245)

Alexander’s emphasis on speculative theology initiated the golden age of scholasticism. His philosophy was influenced by that of Aristotle, particularly in the field of ethics, and also by ...

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Biographical

Anselm of Canterbury (1033–1109)

Anselm of Canterbury, also known as Anselm of Aosta and Anselm of Bec or Saint Anselm, was first a student, then a monk, later prior and finally abbot ...

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Aquinas, Thomas (1224/6–74)

Aquinas lived an active, demanding academic and ecclesiastical life that ended while he was still in his forties. He nonetheless produced many works, varying in length from a ...

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Biographical

Augustine (AD 354–430)

Augustine was the first of the great Christian philosophers. For well over eight centuries following his death, in fact until the ascendancy of Thomas Aquinas at the end ...

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Aureol, Peter (c.1280–1322)

A master of theology at the University of Paris and a member of the Franciscan order, Peter Aureol helped shape the philosophical agenda of the fourteenth century. His ...

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Biographical

Bacon, Roger (c.1214–92/4)

Associated with both the University of Paris and Oxford University, Roger Bacon was one of the first in the Latin West to lecture and comment on Aristotle’s writings ...

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Bernard of Clairvaux (1090–1153)

Bernard was recognized by his contemporaries as the spiritual leader of western Europe. He was an indefatigable advocate of the monastic life and occasionally criticized the schools on ...

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Biographical

Bernard of Tours (fl. 1147, d. before 1178)

Bernard of Tours, better known as Bernardus Silvestris, was closely acquainted with the major developments in science and theology which took place in the mid-twelfth century. His major ...

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Biographical

Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus (c.480–525/6)

Boethius was a principal transmitter of classical Greek logic from Aristotle, the Stoics and the Neoplatonists to the schoolmen of the medieval Latin West. His contemporaries were largely ...

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Biographical

Boethius of Dacia (fl. c.1275)

Boethius developed an original theory of scientific knowledge designed to reconcile science with Christian doctrine without allowing one to determine the contents of the other. His main strategy ...

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Biographical

Bonaventure (c.1217–74)

Bonaventure (John of Fidanza) developed a synthesis of philosophy and theology in which Neoplatonic doctrines are transformed by a Christian framework. Though often remembered for his denunciations of ...

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Biographical

Bradwardine, Thomas (c.1300–49)

Thomas Bradwardine was a leading figure in fourteenth-century philosophy and theology from 1328, when he completed De proportionibus velocitatum in motibus (On the Ratios of Velocities in Motions), ...

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Brinkley, Richard (fl. 1350–73)

Richard Brinkley was a Franciscan theologian at the University of Oxford in the latter half of the fourteenth century. Probably at the request of his superiors, he undertook ...

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Biographical

Brito, Radulphus (c.1270–c.1320)

Radulphus Brito was a prominent master of arts at the University of Paris around 1300. In order to secure the foundation of concepts in extramental reality, he devised ...

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Biographical

Buridan, John (c.1300–after 1358)

Unlike most other important philosophers of the scholastic period, John Buridan never entered the theology faculty but spent his entire career as an arts master at the University ...

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Burley, Walter (c.1275–c.1345)

Active in the first half of the fourteenth century, Burley received his arts degree from Oxford before 1301 and his doctorate in theology from Paris before 1324. At ...

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Philo of Larissa (c.159–c.83 BC)

Philo, head of the Academy from 110 to 88 bc, likened philosophy to medicine. No doubt he was a conscientious therapist himself; but we know little enough ...

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Biographical

Philodemus (c.110–c.40 BC)

Philodemus of Gadara, a Greek epigrammatic poet, was also an influential Epicurean philosopher. Scrolls containing many of his works, buried by the eruption of Vesuvius in ad ...

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Philolaus (c.470–380/9 BC)

The Greek philosopher Philolaus of Croton, a contemporary of Democritus and Socrates, was a pre-eminent Pythagorean. His book counts as the first written treatise in the history of ...

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Biographical

Philoponus (c. AD 490–c.570)

John Philoponus, also known as John the Grammarian or John of Alexandria, was a Christian philosopher, scientist and theologian. Philoponus’ life and work are closely connected to the ...

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