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Search Results 1 - 25 of 1,326. Results contain 8,103 matches


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Thematic

Forms, Platonic

Plato thought that in addition to the changeable, extended bodies we perceive around us, there are also unchangeable, extensionless entities, not perceptible by the senses, that structure the ...

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Thematic

Immortality in ancient philosophy

In Greco-Roman philosophy immortality is discussed in two contexts: as an uncontroversial attribute of the gods and as a highly controversial attribute of human souls. Subdividing this latter ...

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Thematic

Telos

Telos is the ancient Greek term for an end, fulfilment, completion, goal or aim; it is the source of the modern word ‘teleology’. In Greek philosophy the term ...

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Thematic

Technē

Technē (plural technai) is the ancient Greek term for an art or craft; examples include carpentry, sculpting and medicine. Philosophical interest in the technai stems from ...

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Thematic

Innateness in ancient philosophy

The idea that knowledge exists latently in the mind, independently of sense experience, is put forward in three of Plato’s dialogues: the Meno, the Phaedo and the Phaedrus. ...

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Thematic

Prolēpsis

In post-Aristotelian Greek philosophy, the term prolēpsis (plural prolēpseis) was used, first by Epicurus and then by the Stoics, to refer to basic general concepts. These ...

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Aristotelianism, medieval

Although there are many possible definitions, ‘medieval Aristotelianism’ is here taken to mean explicit receptions of Aristotle’s texts or teachings by Latin-speaking writers from about ad 500 ...

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Augustinianism

The influence of Augustine on Western philosophy is exceeded in duration, extent and variety only by that of Plato and Aristotle. Augustine was an authority not just for ...

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Averroism

‘Averroism’, ‘radical Aristotelianism’ and ‘heterodox Aristotelianism’ are nineteenth- and twentieth-century labels for a late thirteenth-century movement among Parisian philosophers whose views were not easily reconcilable with Christian doctrine. ...

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Thematic

Platonism, Early and Middle

Platonism is the body of doctrine developed in the school founded by Plato, both before and (especially) after his death in 347 bc. The first phase, usually ...

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Thematic

Pneuma

Pneuma, ‘spirit’, derives from the Greek verb pneo, which indicates blowing or breathing. Since breathing is necessary for life and consciousness, pneuma came to denote not ...

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Presocratic philosophy

The Presocratics were the first Western philosophers. The most celebrated are Thales, Anaximander, Pythagoras, Heraclitus, Parmenides, Zeno of Elea, Empedocles, Anaxagoras and Democritus. Active in Greece throughout the ...

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Thematic

Psychē

Conventionally translated ‘soul’, psychē is the standard word in classical Greek for the centre of an animal’s, and especially a human being’s, ‘life’. In its earliest usage ...

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Thematic

Pyrrhonism

Pyrrhonism was the name given by the Greeks to one particular brand of scepticism, that identified (albeit tenuously) with Pyrrho of Elis, who was said (by his disciple ...

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Thematic

Pythagoreanism

Pythagoreanism refers to a Greek religious-philosophical movement that originated with Pythagoras in the sixth century bc. Although Pythagoreanism in its historical development embraced a wide range of ...

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Socratic dialogues

After Socrates’ death in 399 bc, a number of his followers composed imaginary dialogues between Socrates and various persons, usually historical. In addition to the dialogues of ...

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Sophists

The Sophists were itinerant educators, the first professors of higher learning, who appeared in Greece in the middle and later fifth century bc. The earliest seems to ...

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Stoicism

Stoicism is the Greek philosophical system founded by Zeno of Citium c.300 bc and developed by him and his successors into the most influential philosophy of ...

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Thematic

Stoicism

REVISED

Stoicism is the Greek philosophical system founded by Zeno of Citium c.300 bc and developed by him and his successors into the most influential philosophy of ...

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Eudaimonia

The literal sense of the Greek word eudaimonia is ‘having a good guardian spirit’: that is, the state of having an objectively desirable life, universally agreed by ...

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Socratic schools

For approximately one and a half centuries after Socrates’ death in 399 bc, several Greek philosophical schools and sects each claimed to be the true intellectual heirs ...

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Dissoi logoi

Dissoi logoi (‘Twofold Arguments’) is the title scholars apply to a short anonymous collection of arguments for and against various theses. The work, in Greek, is (questionably) dated ...

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Eclecticism

Eclecticism in philosophy is the construction of a system of thought by combining elements of the established systems of a previous age. The term ‘eclecticism’ is derived from ...

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Neo-Kantianism, Russian

A rather amorphous movement, Russian Neo-Kantianism, in the first decades of the twentieth century, found its most visible and enduring representatives in A. Vvedenskii and his student/disciple I. ...